High Performance Management
1. Describe and discuss the quadrant associated with Module 3 and its related competencies. How does each competency relate to the quadrant?
Deciding on the factor that the quadrant of competing values framework module 3 will deal with is not easy. You can however use guesswork to determine this. Simply assume that effectiveness is achieved through authority and hierarchy. Therefore, the one on the lower left will be the quadrant you are looking for. Since mostly focuses on the process, internally it is referred to as being less flexible. External stakeholders may therefore not find this being very beneficial to them. However, depending on how big the size of the group how clear the hierarchy is efficiency could still be achieved. In a sense, unity of command can only be achieved by scaling down the personnel to a smaller and manageable number.
2. What is the authors’ point in the Kouzes and Posner metaphors described in Module 3?
What makes a visionary and transformational leader is well defined by Kouzes and Posner’s metaphor. The duo propose that a leader should have several qualities including: have a good interpersonal relationship with colleagues, have a sense of accountability, be able to motivate and inspire by defining values, be able to stir motivation among his colleagues so that they achieve the set goals. This is what collaborative leadership is all about.
Collaborative leadership is achieved through several tools including: questioning status quo, having a common goal and collaborative learning all these have to be geared towards the common vision. Module means the same as the definition of a leader as given by Kouza and Posner. How vision has been described and how it is articulated, necessity of SMART goals, need for employee consideration and considering employee needs all have to be present for one to be called a transformational leader.
3. What are the components needed for a vision? Give an example of each that goes beyond the definition.
Vision is defined as what and where an organization sees itself at in the future. A vision has to well defined, framed with clarity and clearly understood by all workers in order for it to be achievable.
So what does a clearly defined vision look like? It must have a reason for existence, for example a great need in the society. It must also have goals, thus, the specifics as to what strategies will be applied, for example reaching the untapped international market. The key players should also be well defined i.e. the key stakeholders as well as important teams that will ensure the realisation of the dream.
The mission and vision will always reminds the team of their focus. The mission and vision will prompt them on whom to bring on board so as to achieve the goal as well as make them know what the journey will entail.
4. In communicating a vision, what do transformational leaders address, according to your authors in Module 3?
Transformational leadership is all about the ability to provoke positive action and to steer employees towards change in accordance with the changes at work or in the market. How the transformational leader articulates the vision to the team is very important. He must be able to inspire and motivate, promote innovation and diversity through challenging them intellectually and achieve an idealized influence all these for the betterment of the organization.
The best example of a transformational leader is Steve Jobs. He was known for encouraging and provoking innovation. This is how his technology company, Apple Inc. was and is still known for being the powerhouse for innovation. By pursuing the company’s goal and being a leader they could emulate, he made the team embrace the vision and mission of the company as though it were their own. It is no wonder that Apple Inc. created amazing products and even carried out recreations as the needs in the market changed.
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5. What is a visionary leader and how does this type of leader differ from other types of leaders? Explain.
Being transformational as a leader can also be equalled to practising visionary leadership. In actual sense, realizing a vision is what is referred to as being transformational. A visionary leader looks sees into the future beyond the present. They are not focused on instant short time profits they look forward to the role they are going to play in the making of their vision a reality. Steve Jobs is also a relevant example in this scenario. His efforts and that of the team were not geared towards making quick profits in a short while neither were they directed on beating their competitors. Apple Inc. had a vision to make the lives of people better through the innovativeness of its team. One can see the truth of this fact in the products from Apple Inc. Apart from being sleek and stylish they are very efficient. For example, the iphone is like a small office that you can walk around with in your pocket. It is very evident that Jobs’ vision is the engine that made Apple Inc. what it is today.
6. How does goal setting fit within the quadrant associated with Module 3?
Those in the control/hierarchy quadrant also have personal visions and missions that they intend to achieve in the end. This is typical in any organization. In this case, there is a less number of external stakeholders who may want to have an opinion on the individual goals and ambitions of the members of the team. This is the case because the organization will obviously focus more inwardly thereby being less flexible.
When all stakeholders are not involved from the beginning there might arise trouble for the organization. This may also mean that for the employees, achieving personal and individual career goals may become tougher. This is mainly because the culture of the organization as a whole is held in high regard as opposed to that of the individuals working in it. This kind of thinking stifles any opportunities for being innovative among the team members. It not only undermines the limitless potentials of the team members but it also makes it impossible to have SMART goals. No organization can afford to have such a culture in the current dynamic world.
7. What is a SMART goal? Write a SMART goal and identify each component.
The term SMART is an acronym representing the five key elements that have to be present so as to achieve goals. They include: S is for Specific. This connotes precision in terms of what, where and when the particular action should be done. You have to be specific in terms of what and who will be needed or required. Define the likely challenges that you will meet. M is for Measurable. One has to be able to define positive or negative progress. A is for Attainable, R for Realistic and T is for Time-bound.
To explain this further, one can use the example of someone who wants to lose weight. A SMART goal will be one where the specific weight to be lost is clearly indicated, the time by which this weight should be lost should also be clearly given. All these should be specific for example; in this case, you could give pounds and an exact date respectively. The training or activity involved should be clearly stipulated and the whole idea/goal should be realistic.
8. What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation? Give an example of each type of motivator.
What people do is known to be as a result from motivation from a wide array of factors. Theorists have developed theories that try to explain people’s motivations. Thus, the theories simply try to explain people’s attitudes. The external factors that provoke certain behaviours in people are what are referred to as extrinsic factors. In this scenario, the person’s major concern is the eventuality. Things like trophies, salary and promotion are some of the common extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic factors are those on the inside or within. This is the case where the individual honestly enjoys doing a certain thing. The career of your dreams, personality and even self-concept are some of the intrinsic motivation. The need for success can drive an individual to start up his or her own company.
9. Describe the difference between content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation. How might managers use this information?
Content and process theories are the two categories under which the theories of motivation fall. Process theories define rational cognitive process as that which occurs inside a person/intrinsically. An example of a theory that falls in this category is the expectancy theory. Content theories are those that are provoked externally i.e. extrinsic factors. For example, that which satisfies and individual.
Both categories of theories try to explain where human motivation comes from. However, this does not mean that one is mutually exclusive of the other. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors can influence a person’s attitude and behaviour. This knowledge is beneficial to managers who can work with these to motivate their workers and boost their productivity levels. Psychological contracts have recently become common during recruitment process for employees. Giving of rewards and other forms of recognition to employees is a result of managers understanding the science behind human motivation.
10. Give an example, one that goes beyond the definition, of expectancy theory and identify all components of the theory in your example.
Victor Vroom created the expectancy theory. The theory holds that the expectations about the outcome of an action will determine an individual’s motivation. It is of the opinion that the individual will only focus on the eventuality as opposed to considering performing the action. The theory is based on three key pillars: valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Instrumentality is all about the notion that the action will achieve a reward. When the manager know just how badly the employee wants a certain reward (valence) he can fuel the perception that the employee’s hard work will warrant them the reward. Expectancy entails the employee’s hope for achieving the reward.
For example, the possibility of a vacancy up in the hierarchy can make an employee to work hard to be the best employee in the hope that the attractive vacancy will then be given to him.
11. Write a description of an employee who is engaged, not engaged, and actively disengaged. What are the implications and challenges of managing a person in each of these categories?
Taking personal initiative and viewing yourself as being one with the organization makes you an engaged employee. Such employees make supervision very easy at the organisation since they are very unlikely to leave and they give their responsibilities their all.
A not-engaged employee can be described as lukewarm. They are neither happy nor unhappy and neither are they positive nor negative. They are just there. They flow with the motions of time and perform their duties mechanically just so they are done. They will carry out their duties as assigned however; they will do so with lack of passion, energy, personal investment or interest. They also will not cause a lot of trouble when it comes to supervision.
The most difficult lot to manage are the disengaged employees. They careless and they are mostly unhappy. Apart from having very low quality work, they do not care much about keeping time nor attendance. Without full supervision, you are sure that this lot will not get any work done.
12. Describe and provide an example (one that goes beyond the definition) of the forms of departmentalization.
Subdividing a business into units of operation that are smaller is called departmentalization. It is an aspect of organizational design that is based on a number of criteria depending on the given organization. These include the functions performed like accounting, manufacturing, research, human resource, patent care, engineering etc. The geography or territory like western, eastern and southern regions. The products produced by an organization like proctor and gamble that have Pringles, Pampers Charmin and Tide. The stage of production like the New York Alcoa aluminium tubing plant is organized into shipping, tubing, inspection, casting and packing. Departmentalization can also occur on customer basis. This will include customer segments like Microsoft’s small businesses, large corporations, consumers and software developers.
13. Name and describe the three efficiency principles identified in Module 3. What is the purpose of each?
The three principles emphasise on authority and organizational structure as the keys achieving efficiency. These three are the scalar chain: entails the clarity of hierarchy where beating untimely and slow solutions through bureaucracy reduction strategies is necessary. Span of control: It entails reducing the number of people reporting to the manager. Thirdly is the unity of command which entail ensuring a limited number of people reporting to one supervisor so that they are a unit he can control/command efficiently. All these have to go hand in hand with clarity of authority to ensure that the organization is void of confusion.
14. Describe the type of organization that would be in each of the categories included in the Competing Values Culture Framework in Module 3. Name each type of culture and describe how a manager might use this information.
Cameron and Quinn developed four quadrants in reference to the competing values framework. The quadrants created were each representative of a certain organizational structure. The control/hierarchy culture is found on the lower left quadrant. It is less flexible and focused internally meaning it is a more formal structure. The Compete/Market culture is found on the low right quadrant. This structure can be described as being less flexible. It emphasises on bottom-line results, profitability, stretch targets among others.
The Collaborative/ Clan culture is found on the upper left quadrant. This structure is all about flexibility and this is held in high regard as opposed to control and structure. The team is driven by common goals, outputs, vision, outcomes etc. The upper right quadrant represents the Create/Adhocracy culture. The structure here is externally focused hence, more flexible. This means it responds to change a lot.
This knowledge helps managers to build the appropriate culture for their organization depending on their mission and vision.
15. How might a manager use Galbraith’s Star Model?
Jay Galbraith developed the foundation of an organizational design. The ‘Star Model’ proposes five policies upon which managers can take control or manipulate their employees’ behaviour. These include; people, rewards, structure, processes and strategy. By choosing the right behaviour, the manager can influence the culture and also the performance of his company. The manager should seek to find ways of making the employees achieve their best in all the five areas. Structure enables him to realise the engine of decision making, strategy makes him better placed to decide on necessary compromises, process is all about making decisions and flow of information. It also helps realize people policies entails securing the organizations expertise to promote their strategy and rewards is all about acknowledging the diverse individual goals of the employees and incorporating them in the organizations goals.
16. What are the time management techniques described in Module 3? What is the importance of each?
It is important to learn time management since time is a very valuable resource. In module 3, various techniques have been proposed to ensure time management. Prioritization is about determining those duties you feel are of great importance and putting all your energies in that first. This way, you will avoid thinking you can do everything all at once in the same day and hence spend the whole day wasting time and being ineffective. Your list of things to do in a day should start with must-dos before the to-dos.
Interruptions should be avoided and declined at all costs in order to save time. This is achieved when the individual learns to say no where necessary. Self-awareness is all about understanding your weaknesses and strengths about time management and work around this to save as much time as possible. For example, you should know when you are the most productive and active.