Sociology Essay Paper on Introduction to homeland security

Introduction to homeland security

Homeland Security Presidential Directives: HSPD-3 HSPD-5 HSPD-8


HSPD-3 requires all the federal organizations to keep to the terrorist advisory system through the establishment and the execution of agency specific defensive measures for each of the five threat conditions including: low = green; guarded = blue; elevated = yellow; high = orange and severe = red.  The HSPD-3 is responsible for the establishment of the policy for the development of the homeland security advisory system to give word of warning to the state as well as the local authorities in form of a set of graduated threat stipulations that shoot up as the risk of a threat rises (NHSC, 2007).


HSPD -5 necessitates that the department of homeland security establish and administer one, inclusive National Incident Management System as well as the National Response Plan. The key purpose of this directive is to improve the ability of the US to address domestic incidences. Its policy is to put off, prepare for, address, as well as recover from the terrorist attacks and other emergencies (NHSC, 2007).


HSPD- 8 is a companion to the HSPD-5 and it gives a description of how the federal departments and organizations prepare for a response, which includes the prevention activities during the initial stages of a terror incident. It is responsible for directing all the federal agencies to help the DHS in the establishment of a state, all risks preparedness goal with quantifiable readiness precedence and metrics.

How the National Strategy for Homeland Security (NSHS) apply to state governments and emergency managers

The NSHS ensures shared responsibility, which is established upon a foundation of partnership. The governments as well as the emergency managers including other agencies all share common goals and responsibilities plus accountability for the protection and defense of homeland. For the purpose of ensuring homeland security, the NSHS encourages and draws upon a clued-up and active citizenry. For example, citizens are encouraged to all understand what to do when they observe doubtful conduct in their community and what they should do in case of an attack or a natural disaster. This in turn helps in reducing the threat to individual’s lives and property as well as the burden on the emergency managers as well as the first responders (NHSC, 2007).

The challenges and barriers that exist with regard to state homeland security strategy that is not present at the federal level

The key challenges and barriers that exist with regard to state homeland security strategy is the fact that there exists a seam of ambiguity where threats neither are visibly national security threats nor are they law enforcement threats. There are also the translational terrorists’ groupings that challenge the delineation of roles between the DOD, the DHS, as well as other similar agencies, since it is hard to label them as either national security threat or the law enforcement threats. This complexity as well as the lack of certainty also challenges any attempt of dividing the probable hostile threat actors among the various agencies with homeland defense and homeland security roles (NHSC, 2007).

How local-level policies are developed using state homeland security strategy

The states as well as the localities must always have a say when the local level homeland security policies are suggested, developed, discussed, released, and acted. This kind of partnership is one significant element in the establishment of the national homeland security enterprise that the nation requires (Caudle, 2006).

The types of policies to be addressed to effectively respond to a terrorist attack on your city’s critical infrastructure

  1. The universal protection planning policy for the community facilities.

It is significant to adopt a security planning procedure for the public facilities that presents an inclusive focus on the deterrence, response as well as the recovery ahead of the conventional plans (James, 2013).

  1. Security planning for transport services

Planning for transportation routes balanced with community goals as an element of inclusive security plans which involves the location as well as the orientation of building and public spaces is significant. This will help prevent the terrorists from easily accessing the city’s important infrastructures (James, 2013).

The policies to be put in place to fully accommodate interagency collaboration and innovative thinking

To fully accommodate interagency collaboration and innovative thinking, the key policy to be put in place includes engaging the key communities as partners in the war and terror. In addition, policies that ensures collaborative thinking and places complete trust and responsibility in the abilities of the state and local governments to assist in protecting the citizens.


Caudle, S. (2006). Basic practices aiding high-performance homeland security regional partnerships. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Ca Center for Homeland Defense and Security.

James, G. (2013). Preview (Doctoral dissertation, Empire State College).

National homeland security council (2007). National strategy for homeland security.