Social work and Human Services Essay Paper on Mental Health Administration

Mental Health Administration

Case A

Investigating the claims

            Mental health patients require intensive management ethics based on the nature of their disorders. This is a very challenging responsibility especially where the patients are people who are well known by the mental health professionals. For example, treating a patient with severe mental health problems may involve the practitioner engaging in intimate situations with the patient. As such, it is possible that after such treatment, staff might go on to discuss the situation of the patient by other staff members or the public. This is an unethical behavior on the side of the staff, but it should be investigated thoroughly before proper professional action is taken. Disciplinary action against any staff member found of unethical misconduct should satisfy the ethical standards. One of the notable concerns of serious mental health patients is the right for privacy and confidentiality. In this particular case, there are claims of two staff discussing health issues of their clients in an open and congested cafeteria. These claims have been forwarded to the mental health manager by one of their staff colleague. As a manager, there is need to determine the validity of the claims whether they are true of false. This section will give an analysis of how the manager will conduct his investigations and propose  recommendations to the board of the hospital in response to the matter at his disposal. 

            Before making an ethical decision making process, it is important to have conclusive investigations of the issues raised. The claim before the manager is the unethical discussion of patient’s issues by two staff members. The first stage in launching an investigation is to identify the values for a model decision-making process in mental health. These values that will control the investigation process include; openness, honesty, transparent, consensual, consultation, systematic, evidence-based, costs and benefits, respect and equality (Michaelis, 2012).The first stage will be to collect evidence about the claims from reliable sources. Here, since the reporter who claimed the issues was not present at the cafeteria he will be used to retrieve eyewitness for the claims.

            After evidence is collected, the second stage would be to summon the staff and present to them the claims. It is important to present the claims through writing so that they are able to understand the claims properly. The next action would be to have the staff respond to the claims raised against them. After they present their response, the witness can then argue out what they heard at the cafeteria. In addition, the staff will be offered for the second time to react to the evidence presented by the witness. Further, the staff members will be given an opportunity to present their witness in case they feel the claims labeled against them were misunderstood. This process of presenting evidence will be handled at departmental level, and it will be made as highly confidential as possible so that every participant is accorded his right to confidentiality.

            After the evidence collecting stage has been accomplished, as a manager I will undertake the third action of validating the claims against evidence presented. The first factor to consider will be to examine the consistency of the claims against the evidence. Where evidence presented is consistent with the claims it will clearly indicate that the staff members committed the claims. Where there are no consistencies between the claims and evidence provided, I will undertake further investigations. More emphasis in further investigations should be on correlation of the claims with the patient’s information. As a manager, I will seek permission from the responsible staff and the patients consent or next of kin to access his confidential information. This is based on the code of conduct concerning handling confidential information of mental health patient (Ulivi et al., 2009). Once I have enough information about the client, I will be able to validate the claims raised as true or false.

The strategic plan

            Disciplinary actions against mental health staff are instituted by the board of the hospital after preliminary evidence indicate misconduct. The level of the action taken will depend on the cruelty of the misconduct, unethical history of the staff member, action to rectify the violation, extend of the harm to the client and chances of such an act to be repeated in the future (Ulivi et al., 2009).  A mental health staff member who is found to have disclosed the information of a client is booked for unethical misconduct.  The code of conduct concerning confidentiality of a clients information requires that such details are only disclosed where it is required by law, after obtaining the consent from the client, where by virtue of withholding the information is a clear indication of danger to the client and where the information is disclosed for discussion with other medical colleagues for assistance (Michaelis, 2012). Assuming that the above client is found guilty of disclosing client information contrary to the above situations, as the staff manager, I will recommend as follows to the two staff members, client and board.

            After I conclusive investigation, it was established that two mental health staff discussed a clients information in a public cafeteria. The investigations have revealed beyond reasonable doubt that you committed the act contrary to the code of conduct about confidentiality of a patient’s information (Michaelis, 2012). Having been found guilty, I recommend that the board of the hospital should take the necessary action based on the law. The disciplinary action against the two staff member should be violating the code of conduct for keeping confidential information. Since the two staff members do not have a bad history of disclosing client’s information to the public, I would recommend to the board to serve them with a stern warning about such conduct in the future.

            After establishing the claims to be true, it is important to inform the client who was affected in a formal way. The client should be made aware of the mental health staff code of conduct and any legal implication of such an act. Based on the seriousness of the mental condition of the clients I will inform the next of kin about the results for the investigation and advice them accordingly on the possible legal action against the two staff members (Ulivi et al., 2009). This is consistent with the provisions for responsibility of mental health staff to the clients. After informing the client’s representatives, I will recommend that they should pursue any legal action against the staff members that they feel warrant such action.

            The hospital board of directors is the overall regulatory organ that is responsible for disciplining staff members for any validated unethical action. The first stage will be to present a complete report of the investigation to the board. This will serve to pass the threshold of an accurate mental health ethical issue based on the values outlined above during the investigation (Ulivi et al., 2009). Here, both the staff members and the board of directors will validate the process as equal to all parties. Having all board members ascertain that the investigations passed the threshold, I would move on to recommend the following. Firstly, to maintain the relationship of the mental health organization, the Board of Directors, the staff members, and laws and regulations regarding these types of situations, I will recommend that the two staff officers be charged according to the provisions of the code of conduct for mental health staff. Secondly, to ensure that this action is not repeated in the future by any staff member, I will recommend that the staff members in question be given a maximum disciplinary action to scare aware any such act. According to the specific core values outlined by the organization, I recommend that the board of directors to make a formal apology to the clients in the public so that any doubt in other clients and staff is cleared.

Executive summary for the board of directors

            Withholding confidential information is one of the major sensitive parts for a mental health staff. This may result during the diagnosis process where the profession may interact with a lot of individual information concerning the patient. This is made worse where the patient is familiar with the staff because they would easily relate to his normal life routine. Although sometimes discussing client information may be unethical, the matter can be a minefield for the innocent client. In the above case, such issue was raised, and two of the staff members were found to have breached the code of conduct about confidentiality by discussing client information in public. Although such cases are rare, patients are not compelled to demonstrate the extent of the damage they suffer from any disclosure for legal action to be taken (Michaelis, 2012). Where, evidence indicates such misconduct, the board of directors is responsible for holding the staff guilty for a professional misconduct. In this particular case, I would propose three civil actions to be taken against the two staff members based on the rulings of past similar misconducts.

            Firstly, the board of directors should consider the existence of the client’s information in the public domain. Mental health staffs are quite aware of the dire consequences of disclosing client’s confidential information. Such information can only be disclosed where there is consent from the patient, according to the law or where there is public interest rationalization (Ulivi et al., 2009).As such, it is the duty of mental health staff member tomakeclient information private because it is a professional duty. However, special exception should be made where the information of the client already exists in the public domain prior to being admitted to the organization (Michaelis, 2012).Where a patient’s confidential information has changed to a public knowledge facility, it is not right to hold a staff member as guilty of professional misconduct. For example, in a case between the ‘Attorney-General v. Guardian Newspapers (No 2) [1990],’ the court was reluctant to enforce the duty of confidentiality. In the case above, the client in question was a cafeteria attendant that was occasionally visited by many people. There are chances that the mental information of such patient might have been in the public domain. Moreover, based on the fact that the staff members referred to the client by name, the board should not use Guardian Newspaper as a reference to their disciplinary action.

            The board is required to inform the client about the professional misconduct of their staff member. This is according to the values of an open and equal process both to the part of the client and staff. However, the disclosure of the information to the client should be based on the severity of such an action to the mental health of the patient. Where the disclosure is likely to be detrimental, the board is within the law to hold such information even when such person pursues common law. For example, in a model case of ‘R v. Mid Glamorgan FHSA ex parte Martin [1995]’ the court was not compelled by common law to allow the hospital give him access to his records long mental health problem. In this particular case, the board should apply such an approach because disclosure of such information would spell disaster for the client’s mental health. This is because he worked in the cafeteria where most of his customers were the staff members who had now accessed his confidential information. Therefore, the board should move ahead and discipline the staff members without informing the client.

            In making the decision for a disciplinary action, the board ought to validate the information presented by the manager. This can be achieved through analyzing the correlation of evidence provided against the medical records of the patient. At this time, the board should have obtained a signed consent to access the client’s information. This might be a challenge especially where the patient is not cooperative to sign the consent. However, he or she may be obliged by a court order to sign such consent for the claims to be proved. The case of ‘Bennett v. Compass Group UK and Ireland Ltd [2002]’ is a model example where a patient was forced to sign consent. Where the information on the medical records proves the claims or evidence established by the manager, then the staff members should be held accountable for professional misconduct.

            The case presented by the two staff members can better be used to ensure that such a professional misconduct does not happen again in the future. This will require proper training plan for both the two staff members and other members of the organization. The first step would be to set up a workshop on mental health confidentiality issues. During this workshop, the board of directors should ensure that all staff members are motivated to attend so that they take a refresher course on the matter. The workshop should reflect on all issues concerning privacy of information and its legal implications. Having a lawyer to interpret the implications and give an account of past similar legal suits will serve as a better lesson for the staff members avoids such actions in the future. The board should also emphasizes on the corporate values of the organization and reward the best ethical staff members.


Literature review

  1. Hamden, A., Newton, R., McCauley-Elsom, K., Cross, W. (2011). Is deinstitutionalization working in our community? Int J Ment Health Nurs 20(1), 274–83.

            Aged persons are faced by various challenges in accessing mental health services due to the mobility of their age. The article argues that the extensive nature of taking care of elderly people makes it difficult for people to give then care. Also, the family of such patients plays a role in accessing care because they are used to raise the claims. The quality of nongovernmental organizations services is limited to the demographics of the patient’s family. For example, in a situation where the aged patient children are also affected by drugs and substance abuse, they are likely to fail in assisting their parents. Therefore, this article is important to the literature review because it highlights the role of demographics in mental health administration.

  • Happell, B., Hoey, W., Gaskin, C.J. (2012). Community mental health nurses, caseloads, and practices: a literature review. Int J Ment Health Nurs 21(1), 131–7.

            This article provides a basic literature review about mental health administration especially concerning the quality of the services. The findings of the research in this particular journal indicate that patients with serious mental health conditions have a problem in obtaining proper treatment for their illness. Further, the article argues that such persons encounter difficulty in obtaining treatment because the cost of treatment is proportional to the severity of the condition. Also, the article outlines that homeless patients and HIV positive persons suffering from mental health problems are certain to experience positive outcomes where extensive care services are given. Therefore, based on the literature in this article it is possible that the idea to segregate the patients according to races may have been influenced by severity of their illness.

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2010). Mental health services in Australia 2007–08. Mental health series no. 12. Cat. No. HSE 88. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

            The service delivery system in mental health administration determines the access to such care. This article found out that the delivery system is a major barrier than even an individual attributes and environmental concerns. Also, the article claims that access to mental health treatment is influenced by the local level that forms the basis of the cure. Therefore, this seminal [paper provides a vital literature review, which justify the act of segregation of the aged parents according to their race. Here, the article emphasis on capacity and availability of supply as an important aspect of the delivery system that determines the quality of the mental health administration.

  • Department of Health and Ageing. (2010). National mental health report 2010: summary of 15 years of reform in Australia’s mental health services under the National Mental Health Strategy 1993–2008. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

            This article argues the cost of financing a mental healthcare is a major determinant for accessibility of such treatment. Both the mental health administrators and the nongovernmental organizations develop policies that ensure that the cost is reduced. In particular, the article found out that in Australia, most of the mental health homes are found in the urban centers because it is easy to develop capacity in such places. Therefore, this provides an important literature on why the administrator might have used segregation of patients to achieve cost reduction strategy. In addition, having people of the same race in one house would achieve cost reduction strategy because chances are high that they may have common problems, which can be addressed together easily.

  • Henderson, J., Willis, E., Walter, B., Toffoli, L. (2009). Community mental health nursing: keeping pace with care delivery? Int J Ment Health Nurs 17(1), 162–70.

            Care delivery is an important aspect of mental health administration because patients in a particular home come with a range of different conditions. This article provides that the system, of care delivery is important in satisfying the public to accept their patients in such homes. Here, the article points in the fact that mental administrators have a role to play in ensuring a proficient care delivery system. As such, segregation of patients might have been used as a strategy to ensure that the quality of the system is up to the desired standards. Here, people who belong to the same race have a better opportunity to get quality care than when they are mixed together.

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2009). Rural, regional and remote health: indicators of health status and determinants of health. Rural Health Series no. 9. Cat. No. PHE 97. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

            In this article, ethnic diversity issues are an important aspect of mental health administration. It argues that having the same people from one ethnic background gives the administrator an easy task in management. This is because such people have the same cultural communication, which makes it easier for understanding of instructions. Therefore, this article is very important piece of the literature review because it establishes that ethnic diversity is a vital factor to consider in mental health administration. For example, the Hispanic have a different cultural as compared to the Caucasian. Therefore, this literature review can be used to justify the reason why in this particular case patients were segregated into groups based on their ethnic background.

  • Beebe, L., Adams, S., El-Mallakh, P. (2011). Putting the ‘evidence’ in evidence-based practice: meeting research challenges in community psychiatric settings. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 32(1), 537–43.

            This is an important review about the methods used in mental health administration. This article provides the theory of ‘Putting the ‘evidence’ in evidence-based practice’ as the best alternative to reduce the challenges facing mental health administration. Further, it argues that evidence provided in a certain circumstance is the best basis in which the administration framework should be based. Here, if segregation is evidence enough to demonstrate the quality of mental health care, then it should be adopted by all nongovernmental organizations. As such, this article is important to the administrators because it offers them an idea of using an evidence-based approach in formulating the policies and strategies at the organizations.

  • Happell, B., Hoey, W., Gaskin, C.J. (2012). The characteristics of consumers receiving case management in the community: a review of literature. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 33(1), 145–8.

            Mental health patients have very different behaviors that require various approaches to manage them. However, this particular review demonstrates that professional ethics is vital core value that enables administrators to provide the best care in the mental health facilities. The administrators should not be concerned by the fundamental issues about the patients and their family members, but should stick to the professional code of ethics to give care. For example, the article claims that all patients irrespective of their culture or race have weird behaviors that are determined by the extent of their mental condition. Therefore, this literature is important because it can be used as a basis for segregation in the case because such a move can be based on the professional ethics of giving better care.

  • Department of Health and Ageing. (2009). Mental health national outcomes and casemix collection: technical specification of state and territory reporting requirements, version 1.60. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing.

            This article emphasizes on the important of mental health administration in the society because they help to reduce the heavy burden of managing such people. It further demonstrates the process of administering mental health organizations has a long history in the society. Here, every society took it as its responsibility to take care of its own people with such conditions. As such, at this point people from a particular culture or ethnic society were given care in their own groups. Therefore, the history of mental health administration justifies the ideology that in the past was given at cultural level. It is not surprising that in this particular case patients were grouped in houses belonging to people of the same race because it has been a tradition since times in history.

  1. Kidd, M. (2009). What impact will the Australian government’s proposed national health care reforms have on Australian general practice? Medical Journal of Australia, 191(2), 55–57.

            This literature review was based on research activity by the Australian government of the best reforms needed in the administration of mental health. The findings of the research showed that the nongovernmental organizations have an extended role in assisting, providing finance and raising issues about the whole process. In this particular case, the issues of segregation were raised by the nongovernmental organizations. Therefore, this literature is significant to elaborate on the fact that claims raised by such organizations should not be taken lightly. Here, issues that may look good to the administrators may be wrong on the side of other people, and the consensus is the best way to solve such issues.

Literature review executive summary

            After reviewing literature about mental health administration, it has been established the nongovernmental organizations have an important role to play in the whole administration process. Their main duty is to raise issues concerning how mental patients are managed in their houses. Secondly, these organizations assists in providing funds that are necessary to build up facilities for the administrators. As such, any of the claims they raise should be addressed to the latter.

            In this particular case, the issues raised by the nongovernmental organization were diversity of the patients in the houses. It realized that people belonging to the same race were grouped together while segregating others. It is vital for the board and other stakeholders to be trained on the need for diversity in mental health administration. To achieve diversity in the community, the board of directors should use the above literature review to convince them on the benefit of embracing diversity.

One of the ways through which the literature review can achieve this goal is through providing models where diversity has proved to be a major factor in administration. For example, the delivery care system quality is only achieved where there is a diversified community that will bring a lot of expertise. Secondly, the literature review can be used to show the history of administration where diversity has been embraced. Lastly, the literature review will serve as a reference point on circumstances where there have been a lot of challenges in administration due to diversity. Once, the community understands the importance of diversity from the literature review they will uphold it firmly.

            In response to the claims made on the newspaper, as the administrator, it is important to highlight a plan that would embrace diversity. In the plan, the first strategy will be to change the composition of the houses and ensure that people from different race are grouped together. Secondly, the board of directors will give a formal apology to the community for any person who would be offered by the news in the article. Finally, the organizations will make its values known to the public that it is devoted to the spirit of diversity. Here, it will undertake seminars and workshops in the community to send the message of diversity.

Training plan

            The biggest issue in the case above is lack of diversity in the administration issues. However, this problem has been made even bigger after it has been taken up by the editor. Whereas the administrator believes that segregation is an ideal method of managing the houses, it is important to address the diversity issues. The issues in the public require an exclusive training plan for the staff members, the community and the board of directors.

            Before the training session takes effect, it is important to undertake a brainstorming exercises on which are the best ways of conducting the training. Here, consensus is the major issue because diversity calls upon the participation of an inclusive community. In the brainstorming, it should be able to identify the best venues for the training, incentives and ways of motivation people to attend them. The nongovernmental organizations should be given a leading role because they are responsible for taking the issues into the public domain. Also, people are more likely to attend a training session managed by such organizations because they have a wide network link in the community.

            The training will be conducted at community level where there is a full participation of all stakeholders. This is to ensure that any questions raised against any group can be responded to in good time to clear the doubt. Since the segregation issue was raised by the Nongovernmental organizations, it is important that they are given a leading role during the training to emphasize on diversity. Through their vast resources, the organizations will marshal the community at large and sensitize them about the need for diversity. The training will be complemented by the board of directors so that it does not appear to lean on one side of the parties.

            The content of the training is what will define the success of the whole process. This is because such courses are important in improving the status of diversity in the care homes. One of the most important courses to be covered in the training is the role of mental health administration. This is an important course because it will help the participant have an idea of what is undertaken in the process of mental health administration. Here, the community will be informed of the challenges and obstacles facing mental health administrators. This will prepare them to integrate the role of diversity in reducing the challenges and enhancing the whole process. The second course is diversity in mental health administration. Here, it is important to discuss the merits and demerits of the currently situation where the houses have been segregated. In a response tutorial, the trainers should counter this with another session of advantages and disadvantage of having a diversified community and health care house..  Another important course during the training is how diversity can be used by staff members to promote quality and efficiency of the management care. Here, a lot of attention should be given to the staff members because they have a responsibility to embrace diversity in the future. Emphasis should be given to the evidence based model that relies heavily on diversity.

            To ensure efficiency of the training, it is important to give the board of directors a chance to provide their current position of the houses. This is aimed to clear the doubt about the information contained in the newspaper article. The board should state its core values, reasons for undertaking segregation and its plans for the future. However, it should present to the audience its literature review about mental health administrations. This is a very sensitive part that should be handled with a lot of care because it will change the people’s perception regarding diversity. At the end, the board should present its position and commitments to diversity as an approach to providing quality mental health administration.

Case C

The board’s response

            The role of a volunteer social worker is a challenging responsibility that requires much counseling. It is very difficult to get volunteers into these social activities because it involves a lot of devastating circumstances. The few volunteers who are available come from different locations and they bring forth a diversified team. However, the biggest challenge of this situation is that such volunteers get work to be extremely difficult because they are forced to understand the culture of other peoples. Further, understanding the cultures is not enough, but the real issues are embracing the cultures. This is difficult especially where such a culture is seen as oppressive as compared to an individual culture, as such, there is a need for constant counseling that will motivate the volunteers to provide their services.

 The nature of this community service leads to a lot of traumatizing events in the life of a social worker. This derails the morale and it can only be restored through counseling. Therefore, there is high chance that most of the social workers can be traumatized at the same time is a weird experienced is felt across the volunteers. This can be redeemed by a large team of professional counselors that will be assigned to a manageable group of volunteers. Based on the current situation of counselors, there is a need to hire more employees to have the work to be done effectively. Since volunteers come from the rural areas, there is a need for an orientation program that will prepare them to the real reality in the United States. This can only be achieved by a bulk of employees.  The increased number of employees can be funded by non-governmental organizations that deal with disaster management. This can be obtained by provided a proposal about our activities and it will earn a lot of funding even from donor organizations. The budget for the new employees will be inclusive of trauma counseling psychiatrist, training of volunteers and expenses of drafting the proposal.

Executive summary

            The current situation faces a challenge of a shortage of employees. This is because most of the current volunteers come from the rural areas and often experience traumatizing experiences in the course of their social work. Further, another problem is the lack of enough trauma trained psychiatrist to help volunteers when they are buffeted by such experiences. This faces a major cultural obstacle that is presented by the existence of a diversified cultural background of the social workers. Therefore, as an administrator there is a need to address the problem of fewer employees, a trauma psychiatrist and cultural diversity.

            The first plan to mitigate these problems is to employee more workers so that there are no shortages in the future. This is a voluntary social activity that does not make it easy for many people to appreciate. In the current situation, I propose that the few employees are highly motivated to ensure that they are devoted to this programs. For example, establishing an education support program for the existing employees will motivate their morale. Also, I will step up counseling activities because they are important to the employees due to traumatizing experiences that are very common. However, the best solution for the future is to ensure that more employees are recruited so that long working hours are reduced to make the social work interesting.

            The biggest challenge facing the volunteers is the traumatizing experiences that are very common. This de-motivates the volunteers and makes other willing people to fear engaging in such activities. Having a professional trained trauma psychiatrist will help to improve the ordeal experiences. Here, the volunteers will be taken to a trauma counseling session before, on and after joining the organization. A timely counseling session is significant in preparing the volunteer for any traumatizing experience. Therefore, I will intensify counseling activities whilst advocating for recruitment for more trauma psychiatrist so that the problem is solved for the future.

            Dealing with volunteers from different cultural backgrounds is a major challenge because they form a basis in which people articulate their issues. In the current situation, cultural diversity is a major issue because most of the volunteers come from the rural areas where the cultures are totally different. However, to mitigate this challenge, I will initiate a cultural diversity program that will create awareness for the need to understand and respect other people’s cultures. When the volunteers understand that there are various cultures, all of them will be informed about such culture, and they will not play a significant role in changing their perception because they are aware about their existence. As a strategy for the future, recruiting a team full of many cultures is ideal for solving this problem because it will leave a landmark for that respective culture, and no new ones will be experienced.

            To achieve these mitigation strategies, I will employ a charismatic leadership style. This is because volunteering in a disaster zone is more of a calling than just providing the services. Through a charismatic leadership style, I will trigger the intrinsic calling in the heat of the volunteers so that they are not de-motivated by any trauma experience.


 Mental health condition has continued to take preference in the modern world because such patients have been overlooked in the society. These people are not given proper care due to their mental health condition that is not their fault. As a result, mental health organization is a non-governmental entity that has established house for such persons. This is achieved through identifying such patients and integrating them in various homes that have a proximity to their families. The role of the organization is to provide the vital care and seek for special treatment of such persons. Currently, the organization uses volunteers in disaster relief regions as its employees to fulfill its mandate. Here, the volunteers are given a mental health acre training and counseling. However for the future, the organizations plan to give fully treatment of mental health patients, as well as full training of the volunteers in various areas of mental health. There are various people involved in providing these services to the community. These include; mental health administrators, volunteers and non-governmental organizations.

            Mental health administrators have the major responsibility in ensuring that these social work activities are achieved. They formulate the strategies and coordinate all social activities concerning mental health management. They form a link between the board of directors and the staff through formulating the strategies. Another important responsibility is to provide leadership to the organization so that its workers are motivated to give best services. For example, few workers will call upon the administrator to recruit more workers so that their work becomes effective. Also, another important role is to promote diversity in the community. These programs deal with the social aspects of the society, and a diversified community is better placed to provide good mental health services.

            Volunteers are an incredible lot that are tasked with implementing and executing the strategies and plans developed by administrators. Their major role is to provide mental health care to patients in the house. They look after such people with constant consultation of the mental health staff members. Therefore, these groups of stakeholders are faced with very traumatizing experiences because they meet a lot of situations during the course of their work.

            Non-governmental organizations have various vital roles that serve as a reference point in managing the conduct of the organizations. One of their main roles is to assist in providing financing for the treatment of the patients and appreciation to the volunteers. This is very important based on the fact that treatment of mental health conditions is very expensive and cannot be easily met by a single organization. Another role of these organizations is to sensitize the community of the activities of the mental health organizations in their community. For example, where mental health patients are segregated into houses comprised of individuals of the same race is likely to brief a cultural diversity in a cosmopolitan environment. It is the responsibility of the non-governmental organizations to raise such issues so that they are rectified in the future. However, the roles of each group may be limited by a number of factors. For example, the supervisory role on NGOs can be limited by the existence of the theory, cultural diversity and history of mental health organizations. Here, the literature review provides the tradition for the administrators, which might at sometimes be contrary to the wish of the NGOs.

Multicultural education and training plan

            The efficiency of social work activity depends on how volunteers are prepared to handle cultural diversity. Often, many volunteers get it difficult to work in a multicultural environment because some of the cultures are new to them. Therefore, as an administrator, it is important to develop a multicultural education and training plan that will help the volunteers to cope up with the diversity. The training plan should encompass both specific and general cultural information about the international disaster zones.

 One of the specific cultural information is the language used in that specific zone. Each international zone has its own specific language, and it is important to learn such a language prior joining such an organization. This will ensure that the communication barrier is removed from the volunteers and the community. Another specific aspect is the rules and regulations in that international zone. This should be well articulated so that it does not lead to any illegal activity while undertaking the social work.

 For the general training plan, it is important to include in the training the different types of cultures. Having a vast knowledge about different types of cultures will assure the volunteers to adapt and understand any culture that they will meet in the international disaster zone. Also, there is a need to learn on the personal conduct and how to handle foreigners because much of the work will involve meeting new people. Further, mental health care methods are important because it gives the worker that basis of the fieldwork experience.  Personal attributes and communication skills are vital because they give the worker the presentation that is required during the course of duty. 

Case D

Strategic plan

            Working in a research center is a tedious job because there is pressure to provide results at the end of every research experiment. When the experiments backfire, the researchers are blamed, and this leads to stress and anxiety. Where a researcher undertakes an experiment of his personal interest, it makes the work environment to be more stressful. There is a need for the board of directors to have a strategic plan to control researchers properly to reduce anxiety and stress at the workplace to obtain results.

 The plan should take into account their relationship between the researcher and the center. This should be a major requirement during recruiting because it will help to facilitate a reduced stressful working environment. Here, the relationship of all employees to the research center should be determined fully to establish the suitability of such persons working in such a center. For example, in this particular case, most of the researchers have family members linked to the particular diseases that are under study. Although, the researcher will use the professional ethics, he or she is bound by excessive pressure about the disease by the situation of his relative back at home. Where the researcher is not related to the disease in any way, he is bound to have less pressure and anxiety while performing his duty. Therefore, ads a manager at the center, it is important to determine an extensive analysis of the diseases relationship to the employees before an offer is given.

            The researchers should be given a free environment to perform the experiment. This is a plan to ensure that the pressure for results is reduced. A manager should formulate goals and hypothesis of every experiment so that the workers channel their efforts to achieve the objectives. A free environment will reduce the anxiety, but goals will define what is expected from the researcher. As such, it is possible to obtain results without too much pressure of the workers for results.

            An organization board has a responsibility to establish a good environment for research work. Firstly, they have a responsibility to ensure necessary equipment for research are put in place. Secondly, it is their role to reduce anxiety by giving the experiments the chance to be performed. They should not be on their neck of the researchers as these will create a stressful environment. Also, through motivating the researchers, it is possible to offer a leadership style that will promote an innovative culture that is very vital for research activities.

            Based on the plan outlined above, each of the stakeholders has a role to play in achieving a result oriented center. I recommend that the organization employs researchers that are competent based on their core values. This will ensure that thirty perform their activities ethical without undertaking other activities that may compromise the results. Secondly, I recommend that the board of directors should not be focused too much in results but rather on a competent experiment. This will reduce anxiety and pressures that are likely to influence the results of the experiment. Lastly, the board should stress on the regulations of human services so that each research is obliged to better the research experiment.

Board of directors’ response

            The main challenge of the institution is failure to obtain results that is caused by stress and anxiety on the side of the researchers. This has been influenced by too much anxiety as a result of investigating diseases that are a major concern for the workers. As such, the board has suggested that such members who have exhibited anxiety should be replaced with other worker who is not connected to the disease under study. Anxiety is managed through a stress free environment, underscore the core values and emphasize on professional ethics.

             Stress is another significant source of anxiety at the work place. It comes as a result of too much demand for the results of the experiments. Therefore, it is important to formulate the objectives and hypothesis of a trial before it is initiated so as to serve as the guideline of the experiment, this way, there will be no stress to achieve a pre-determined result. Also, in a situation where the objective is not achieved, it may well mean that the hypothesis was rejected, and there is no cause to claim that the experiment has failed in whatever manner. Further, stress free environment gives the researchers an ample opportunity to consult with one another to improve the quality of the experiment. Here, it is possible to brainstorm and any faults in the experiments can be detected easily and fixed before the results are compromised.

             Core values of the organization form the framework that guides the conduct of all workers. Instead of recruiting researcher who does not have a connection to the disease, it would be easier to develop the corporate core values that would be followed by all the employees. As a result, the core values governing the conduct of experiments will be clear, and the results will be guaranteed irrespective of the link of the worker to the disease. Moreover, this will save time that would otherwise be wasted in establishing the link of the disease and the researcher.

            Every research experiment is governed by professional code of ethics. This is a very important aspect of the experiments because it helps to maintain the quality of the experiment; it is the quality of the experiment that gives desirable results at the end. Where an experiment is found to have contravened the professional ethics then its results are nullified. Secondly, it is easier to manage stress in a situation where the worker is bound by the professional ethics rather than a link to the disease. Here, these workers are not anxious to satisfy their ego, but they strive hard to ensure that they perform their duties based on the professional code of ethics.

            Research articles have established that a researcher who is linked to a disease stands a better chance to perform an experiment about the same disease because he has prior knowledge about the disease. However, more workers have established that stress at the workplace is the major source of anxiety. Also, other articles have clearly indicated that anxiety is the reason why most experiments fail because the researchers are distracted from paying maximum attention to the experiment of following the professional code of the ethics, therefore, based on the idea proposed by the board of directors, it worthy top reduce stress at the research center rather than having researchers who have no link to the disease being investigated.

An education and training plan

            Experiments are major milestones in achieving results that change human life. However, these activities require an initial large capital outlay that should be managed properly; this has been a major reason why most of the experiments have turned out to be results oriented. The problem of this perception is that the researchers work under stress free environment that results to anxiety. Further, anxiety results to compromising the whole experimental results. Therefore, there is a need to establish an education and training plan to ensure that this problem does not occur again in the future.

             One of the basis for the training plan is methods of reducing workplace stress that would otherwise result to anxiety. The staff members and the board should be taken into an extensive stress management education. This will help them to identify the sources of stress at the workplace and how to reduce stress to foster results. This should focus at stress both at the staff member’s level and at the director’s level so that each person understands what make the work environment stressful. The completion of this course will ensure that there is no chance of a stressful workplace.

            Having an education course about the core values and professional ethics is an important part for the researchers and the board. The board should emphasize on the core values of the research center while professional code of conduct and ethics should be taught to the researchers. This will serve as the objectives and control mechanisms for performing quality experiments that will provide tangible results.  Therefore, to avoid such situations in the future it is important to have a training program where recruited employs are informed about the core values of the centers.

Case E

Strategic plan

            Clients respond to treatment in different ways even under the same conditions of treatment and drugs. In this particular case, one of the clients fails to respond to the medication given and takes the issues to the board. In response, the board threatens your future at the facility based on the claims of the client. The assumption made by the board ion the manager is improper, but instead special conclusive investigation should be undertaken before such a warning is issued. However, as a manager, there are several ways I would use to convince the board regarding the image developed by the client’s complaints. This can be through using the staff personal and the history of treating outpatients in the clinic.

            The staff comprising of asocial worker, two clinical psychologists, and a sensitivity-trained intake aide have an important role to play in this particular issues. Before the patient is diagnosed, he is examined by the sensitivity-trained assistant who then passes the results to the clinical psychologists. Also, these are procedural stages that are made formal. Therefore, under the consent of the client I will retrieve the medical information to determine whether all the requirements were met. It is only the medical record of the client that can be used to validate type of treatment that has been given. At this point, I will be sure on the best response to the board. Firstly, if the documents show that the correct procedure was followed then I will present to the board that it is a failure on the part of the client’s body to respond to the treatment. To support my claims, I will table the medical reports that indicate why every treatment was undertaken.

             In a situation where I detect a problem of the staff workers I will undertake an evidence-based analysis to ensure that I hold responsible the actual staff member that may have compromised the treatment process. This will be followed by informing the staff member and have his response to the claims. At that point, I will make the verdict and present it to the board for necessary disciplinary action. Another important defense at my disposal is the history of other clients. This will be an indication that the real problem of the client is not negligence, but response of the treatment. With this, I can present to the board and propose to undertake an alternative treatment in consultation with the clinical psychologists and the client.

            In a strategy to change the impression of the clinic, I will prepare an article of past positive response clients that have recovered fully. However, this showed be followed by a story about a situation where the client has negatively responded to the treatment. This strategy is supported by the fact that once an issue that was confidential becomes of public interest, it can be discussed in public domain. The idea of having this particular issues appear in the newspaper is to clear the rather negative perception of the clinic. Therefore, I will respond to the allegations labeled against my conduct by performing a preliminary investigation to determine whether it was a fault by the staff member. One the investigation are done, I will choose to go public with the issue where is a response by the client to the treatment or seek to have the board discipline the staff members where I established that they are responsible for the problem.

Executive summary

            Any allegation leveled against a staff member should be investigated fully before any course of action is taken. In response to the allegation that were made by one of our clients I wish to clarify that I had done investigation and found out that the problem is caused by a failure to respond to the treatment rather than negligence as stated.  Therefore, there are two possible suggestions for this case; to undertake another investigation against the staff members and proposing an alternative e treatment.

            The board should undertake to investigate all the four staff member of a possible negligence of duty on their part. The preliminary report of the findings will be provided and if the medical report is required that it will be obtained after a signed consent from the client. It is important to use the evidence-based method because it gives an accurate position of the matter in medical terms rather than assumptions made of physical response.

            The other option is to recommend an alternative treatment for the client. I strongly believe this is the best option because other clients with similar illness responded well to the treatment. Therefore, I recommend that the client is taken back to the clinical psychologists to explore the next available treatments. Here, the issue raised by the client will be inconsequential if the alternative treatment will work properly. It is the responsibility of the board to decide which of these two options are best for this situation. Further, the value of equality should be upheld during this process so that all participants are subjected to a fair trial so that the image of the clinic is restored whereas the client is also satisfied.


Michaelis, A. (2012). Priority-setting ethics in public health. Journal of Public Health Policy, 23(1),          399–412.

Ulivi, G., Reilly, J. & Atkinson, J.M. (2009). Protection or empowerment: Mental health service users’     views on access and consent for non-therapeutic research. Journal of Mental Health, 18(1), 161–      168.