Sample Term Papers on Language Development

Language Development

Introduction

            Human being’s lives revolve around a cycle that involves an array of stages and developments. Since the birth of an infant, life contains a milestone of events that occur to define a person. Language development is one of these events that and it is an integral part in human beings growth and it starts very early in life. Therefore, language development is a process that involves young children acquiring and learning how to communicate, and to contemplate things (O’Neill, 2007). Language is the most common process that human beings use to convey information to each other. During the language development age, young children start to fathom and interpret meanings of objects and actions. Usually, the children acquire language and meanings of various words from the surroundings, especially people. Parenting directly affects the domains of child functioning at different stages of development (Pungello, 2005). The parent and child interaction creates a co-relation that aids in the child development. Consequently, an argument exists about the efficacy of language development between children who grow with their mothers versus children whose parents work away from home. Most likely, children whose parents work away from home are enrolled in day cares or have nannies to look at them (Pungello. There is a lot of research concerning the relationship between parents’ and their children’s language development. Some of these studies indicate that unproductive language development during the tender age may present adverse effects even in the latter stages of life. In light of this, it is important to understand whether productive language development is achieved when parents are around or when they are not present. Therefore, this paper categorically argues that children who grow with stay at home mothers or housewives have better language development than those having parents work away from home.

Concepts of language development

            According to Chomsky, Marc and Fitch (2002), environment provides a language input to the children especially the speech from adults to children equip them with the correct understanding of language. In this case, most of the language development process is an acquired art or skill from others (Chomsky et al., 2002). Therefore, for the child to master language faster and efficiently, he or she needs to be fed with information regularly. This suggests that a child requires undivided attention where the attention giver contributes in administering language skills to the baby. Only the parent can accord the highest level of baby attention than any other person. Interactionist theory explains that communication is a two way process and the response a mother gives to the child stimulates the ability to learn how to communicate (Ramscar & Yarlett, 2007). When the mother stays with her baby for a whole day making gestures and sounds that have resonate meanings, the child inputs them and they trigger the baby’s language development. On the contrary, working parents mostly enroll their babies to a day care or look for house helps. In such places, the caretaker’s attention is divided to various issues and there are numerous kids to attend. For example, in a day care, a caretaker may attend from five to approximately ten kids in a day; hence, he or she has limited attention to a single baby. Chomsky and others state that children develop language through recasting, expanding and labeling (2002). Recasting for example refers to rephrasing something uttered by the baby and constructing a meaningful term or sentence and repeating it to the child. It is Obvious that only mothers who have such sufficient time to accord attention to their babies. Labeling or referencing is defined as identifying objects by their names. This strategy can apply both at home and in the day cares but it is more profound at home (O’Neill, 2007). Arguably, the fundamental and basic objects that a child should learn are at home. In labeling, the mother identifies an object and its name, and she ensures the child repeats. All these strategies require undivided attention that can only be given by stay at home mothers.

            Another aspect in language development concerns the morality aspects of the acquired language. As stated earlier, language development largely depends on the environment especially the speech-input from the others. Mothers who stay with their children have an absolute control on what pounces on the baby’s ear (Blandy, 2011). Each family or parent desires up bringing the child with the best morality values. However, the desire is short-lived when other people rather than the parents determine the child’s morality. The surroundings matters and people may utter words that deprive human moral aspects with a baby in the vicinity. Consequently, the baby absorbed those words, which might be immoral or aggressive. A report by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 2010 indicates that children who grow in day cares have higher degree of aggression than those who grew with parents at home (Pungello, 2005). An open environment comprises of diverse ideologies and behaviors. A babysitter or a nanny may hail from a background that has different human behavioral aspects from the parent. As a result, the child will develop language imitated from the babysitter that contradicts with what the parent wishes the kid to grow like. Aggression is usually associated with the environment and exposure to violent people or media violence. Aggressive people often use abusive and ambiguous language that can distort the morality aspect of a child. Parents who closely get involved with their children growth have an opportunity of selecting the words to input to the child.

            Ramscar and Yarlett (2007) assert that nativity theory explains that infants are born with an intrinsic desire to make sense of the world. This theory states that the desire to infant’s desire to learn is genetically stimulated. According to Chomsky and others (2002), a child has internal inborn language acquisition device (LAD) that facilitates language development. Therefore, the LAD and nativity theories suggest that infants acquire language faster from members of the same genetics. For example, it is easier for a mother to teach a child how to eat than any distance person is because they have a very strong relationship with the baby. Same case applies to language because of the similarity in genes the child memorizes faster. Additionally, a child acquires learning willingly from the parent without coercion or manipulation (Ramscar & Yarlett, 2007).           Alternatively, scientist discovered a special communication method between mothers and their children called motherese or baby talk (Chomsky et al., 2002). This style of speech is characterized with high-pitched intonation and exaggerated vocalization or expressions. Chomsky and others (2002) strongly believes that motherese is integral for faster and effective language development. This is because it is easier for children to fathom cognitively motherese due to its simplicity based on their memory. Mothers offer a paramount language learning aid to their children in form of baby talk; hence, their absence retards the efficiency of language development.

            The other fundamental aspect of parenting on the child’s language development is fostering an effective rapport. Staying closer to the baby enables it to enact an attachment with the mother. This relationship develops the brain engagement into identifying things. According to Chomsky, an infant who has shallow attachment with the parent elicits little confidence in trying to understand things (2002). Another study indicates that when babies have an attachment with the parent, they cry less-often. As a result, the baby is at peace most of the time; hence, the name peaceful parenting. In this case, the baby spends the rest of its time interacting and learning from the environment. Researchers have found out that babies who grow under the care of their parents have organized behaviors later in life. The most common explanation is that they learn from their mothers and fathers because they act as behavioral, emotional, and physiological regulators for their babies. Peaceful parenting adopts the argument that the baby has a mutual relationship with the parent because when it needs to sleep the mother breast-feeds and then sleep together. This way the baby feels connected, valued, and responded to; hence, it promotes the baby alertness. Ramscar and Yarlett (2007) argue that a comfortable kid gains the behavior of observation and response to stimuli. They will be very keen to learn and memorize every little thing they acquire from the surroundings. On the contrary, babies that grow without their parents spend most of their times crying and making a lot of fuss. As a result, all the energy and time is consumed by the uncomfortable nature that the baby is experiencing. The aftermath is long time of sleep and relaxing the mind. Therefore, there is very little time and energy left for the kid to observe and learn new things; hence, language development is quite slow.

            Language is also developed by meeting an array of people from a different environment. Children that grow under a caretaker are always confined at one place because they are supposed to stay at home. This limits their exposure and they do not integrate with the environment, which is so vital for their language development. Research reveals observing things such as pictures, people in motion, and cars among other things trigger the kid’s anxiety to talk. The neurological stimulation forces the brain to act in response to the stimuli and the common way is by talking. Chomsky (2002) states that outings, even simple walk on the park, opens the possibility of learning a new concept and integrating an idea. Same case applies to babies because they actualize what they observe in their brains. Parents have the highest probability of taking their babies for an outing than babysitters. During the weekends, they go out for a lunch outside their homes and carry their babies with them (Blandy, 2011). Similarly, outdoor events such as a match, swimming, conferences, the baby tends to anticipate the words it hears from the surrounding. That is why doctors and scientists encourage parents to read for their kids books and interesting magazines. Although they may not follow the storyline but it creates an interest in the wording. Interest or desire is the initial step for the baby to commence the language development (O’Neill, 2007). Practice is quite helpful in child’s development especially language acquisition. Mostly, children utter the first word at the age of 12 to 18 months while others delay for a little longer. The difference in talking is attributed to the time the infant spends with the parent. In most cases, parents keep on jabbering and making non-stop chants to the infant. As a result, the child responds by laughing or making funny sounds and they both initiate a conversation. This cues are predominantly exhibited by mothers; hence, children who having working parents miss. As the child grows the mother impacts his or her development in various ways.     

Discussion

            The whole community creates an impact in developing the language in a child. Their contribution is fundamental due to the interactions and observations, which are the key stimuli to language development. However, parental supportiveness creates an enormous in enabling the efficacy in language development. Chomsky (2002) instills that stimulation plays a key role in a child’s language development. In light of this, Ramsacky and Yarlet (2007) believe that biochemical boost is one of the stimuli effect in a baby. The biochemical boost refers to the effect caused when a mother breastfeeds the baby, caresses it, and the comfort of its mother’s arms. The response is notable for instance the baby may cry and the mother breastfeeds it until it falls to slumber. The same response happens in language through the baby talk or the motherese (Blandy, 2011). The kid integrates and learns faster from his or her own mother; hence, the first language is called mother tongue. Then there is the effect of mother-infant attachment and good relationship. The child will be much willing to learn from the mother than from a stranger due to the mother-infant attachment. Interaction helps the child to create an impression of the meaning of a certain word.

            Another issue important issue in language development lies on the morality of the child. Parents intrigue having a polite and well-mannered child who upholds discipline to the latter. However, these values are cultivated in the initial stages of child development. In this era of postmodernization, a child can use various agents to acquire language development such as from the TV or mass media (O’Neill, 2007). In such a situation, the child consumes unregulated information that may harm the morality of the child. However, the presence of a mother aids in controlling what the child consumes and cultivating his or her behavior. On the other hand, mothers or parents accord their children enough time that is necessary for growth. They always carry them along while going on a trip or an outdoor event. These activities help the kid to socialize with the external environment enriching the child’s language development. In conclusion, there exists a refutable evidence that parents impacts children learning and development. Children experiences with their mothers at home are critical to their cognitive understanding (O’Neill, 2007). The mother-infant attachment creates a bond that conveys language from the mother to the infant. Therefore, children who grow with stay at home mothers have better language development than those having parents work away from home.

References

Blandy, C. (2011). Children perform better if mothers stay at home for the first three years. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Children-Perform-Better-If-Mothers-Stay-at-Home-For-the-First-3-Years&id=5661500

Chomsky N, Hauser MD,  Fitch WT (November 2002). “The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?”. Science 298 (5598): 1569–79.

Ramscar M, Yarlett D (November 2007). Linguistic self-correction in the absence of feedback: a new approach to the logical problem of language acquisition”. Cogn Sci31 (6): 927–60. 

O’Neill, D.,K. (2007). The language use inventory for young children: A parent-report measure of pragmatic language development for 18- to 47-month-old children.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(1), 214-28. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/232337573?accountid=1611

Pungello, E. P., Iruka, I. U., Dotterer, A. M., Mills-Koonce, R., & Reznick, J. S. (2009). The effects of socioeconomic status, race, and parenting on language development in early childhood. Developmental Psychology45(2), 544.

Appendix

  1. Chomsky N, Hauser MD,  Fitch WT (November 2002). The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?”. Science 298 (5598): 1569–79.

This article can be found on Google scholar database. Since Chomsky is a renown scholar on language issues, the word Chomsky and language formed the key words for searching the article. This is a primary article because it is a journal article that has been published online.

  • Pungello, E. P., Iruka, I. U., Dotterer, A. M., Mills-Koonce, R., & Reznick, J. S. (2009). The effects of socioeconomic status, race, and parenting on language development in early childhood. Developmental Psychology45(2), 544.

This journal article is found in google scholar where the key words are language development. It is a primary article.

  • Ramscar M, Yarlett D (November 2007). Linguistic self-correction in the absence of feedback: a new approach to the logical problem of language acquisition”. Cogn Sci31 (6): 927–60. 

This secondary article derived directly from the internet by searching language acquisition.

  • Blandy, C. (2011). Children perform better if mothers stay at home for the first three years. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Children-Perform-Better-If-Mothers-Stay-at-Home-For-the-First-3-Years&id=5661500

This is a secondary article retrived from the Ezine@rticles database. The key words are children performance with stay at home mums.

  • O’Neill, D.,K. (2007). The language use inventory for young children: A parent-report measure of pragmatic language development for 18- to 47-month-old children.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(1), 214-28. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/232337573?accountid=1611

The journal database is proquest, it is a primary article and the key words are language development on children.