Sample Sociology Thesis Paper on Promoting Education Rights of Student Mothers in Uganda

THESIS: PROMOTING EDUCATION RIGHTS OF STUDENT MOTHERS IN UGANDA: A CASE STUDY OF PADER DISTRICT

Abstract

In the contemporary society, the rights of women have been violated to a higher stance.  The placement of a lady in the community is seen to be responsible for this notion at hand. The women empowerment has been seen to help in the spearheading the growth and development of various countries and society.  The demystification on the placement of the women in the society is seen to have a far-reaching effect on the perception of women in the society. Women empowerment can happen through the profound education and allocation of the leadership chances for these women. Women, especially in the most African countries, have been perceived to have no leadership qualities due to their placement in the society.  As it stands, they have, in the ancient past, been denied the opportunity for education and leadership roles.  In the conquest to try to upgrade this unprecedented upgrade, various countries have sought to amend their constitution so that they may have a high sense of inclusion of the women both in the leadership and regarding the girl child empowerment.  This notion has been spearheaded by ensuring that the girls go to school, and the challenges that affect them due to cultural restrictions are scrapped out.  In the conquest of these broad categories of salvage, numerous impediments have encroached the empowerment of the same. This proposal is a masterpiece of reviewing of the women rights and addressing the various challenges that the women face in Pader District, Uganda and the steps that should put in place to ensure that the women are empowered both regarding education and the leadership stance.

Promoting Education Rights of Student Mothers in Uganda

Introduction

Introduction

The rights of women in the society have been diminished in the past. Men are always seen to be quite predominant in the society regarding taking various pertinent roles in the community. As it stands, the roles that have been given to the women both in the tradition and the conceptualization of the ancient constitution is seen to be quite diminutive, and this has deteriorated the placement of the women in the society (Sullivan-Owomoyela, 2006, P.234).  The various government bodies across the world have tried to amend the constitution in providing for the proper grounds for the empowerment of the women.  In the event of seeking to implement these connotations in the law to favor the women, there have been lots of challenges that promote the violation of the rights of women in the society (Wylie, & Holt, 2010). This proposal gives an incisive look into these impediments and tries to address their impacts and the remedies that are available for the women for these obstacles. In specific term, we would take a case study of Pader District in Uganda to look into the various problems that the women face as they try to exercise their rights in the society.  We would look at the effectiveness of the constitution, the role the culture plays in the women rights violation and the educational structure put in place to cater for the educational needs of the young women in this district.  This proposal serves as a stepping stone to unveiling the roots and causes of women rights violation and how best they could be improved from various quarters.

Contextual background of the problem

In the current context of the society, well-stratified education forms an integral part both the societal and economic development. The right to education is quite essential for every individual in every country.  As it stands, every individual has the right proper education, and this entails both the male and the female persons in the society. (The constitution of Uganda pg 25, (XIV) b). In the global stance, the notion of high level of education has been spearheaded by various documents that try to give the right to education to the every individual in any country.  Some of the very vital documents that are outlining the rights to education of each person as such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 28. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, (Article 11), United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and The Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Ugandan government has been on the forefront in making sure that the educational stance of the girl child is up to date.  This notion has been brought by the fact the women placement in the society has been deteriorated, and this has hit a high level of societal neglect which is quite detrimental to the women in this country (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.19).

At the national government level, the government has tried to have a strong stance of promotion of the women rights through the inception of the programs that favors the girl child education and reduces the notion of impunity and early marriages to the young women of the society.  Even as the government does this act of spearheading the rights to education to the women in Uganda, there are still various areas of concern that needs to be addressed since these rights are still not fully exploited by the women shown by the high level of school dropouts which emanates from the females over the years.  It is now quite imperative to look into the real reasons why the women are not still in a position to fully exploit their rights to education (Kaldor, 2007, P.65).

The problem statement

It is a fact that the Ugandan government has tried to give much attention to the provision of the rights of the women of this country.  This has been done through the amendment of the constitution to favor the rights of the women.  The girl child has encouraged start and finish school in the most appropriate curriculum.  Additionally, various programs have been put forward in trying to tackle the notion of women empowerment.  Even under these positive strategies brought forward by the government to bring on board the advent of women empowerment, various signs should that the rights of the women have been violated.  This notion is evident in the increase in the number of female school dropouts. Additionally, there is still high rise in the early marriages (Friedan, 2013, P.49).  The cultural norms have made it possible for the girl child to be abused by being married at a tender age.  These predicaments have befallen the country even as the government tries to mitigate them.  The transcending effect of this notion is that the country will still experience the high level of school dropout, and this is deemed to affect the country both socially and economically (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.19).  Up to now, less effort has been enacted to support the education of the women and without the profound remedy on the same; the country is deemed to lose a lot of manpower that emanates from women (Kaldor, 2007, P.65).  Women are seen to have a high percentage regarding population in Uganda and yet few of them finish their education before being disrupted by marriage. There is, therefore, the need to understand the real issues surrounding the education rights of the women and how the problems could be solved to allow these women to exercise their rights.  Additionally, there is still a lot to be done as concerns the cultural perception that the women have on their placement in the society. 

The keywords

Education, student mothers, rights, women empowerment, the constitution

 The broad objective

The primary purpose of this study is to examine on the best way in which we can promote the education rights of the mothers who are students and the impact of these rights on their social wellbeing.

Specific objectives

To carry out the broad research on the postulated topic, the following specific objectives are very critical in ensuring that a profound solution to the issue is achieved.

  • To understand the cause and impact of assuming the role of being a student mother Pader district of the northern part of Uganda regarding economic,  social, and political stance.
  • To examine the effectiveness of the framework of the policy put in place to deal with the notion of the rising student mothers in the northern Uganda, particularly Pader District.
  • To come up with means and ways of helping the parents who are students in achieving their educational ambitions and success even after going through the advent of giving birth.

The research questions

From the objectives brought out above, the following research questions have been postulated to provide an automatic analysis of the whole research project.

  • What are some of the various economic, social and political factors that have lead to the increase of the student mothers in Pader district of the northern Uganda?
  • What are the most suitable policy frameworks that are available for the effective dealing with the issues that affect the student mothers and its inception in the first place?
  • What are some of the best ways in which the student parents should be treated to ensure that they accomplish their educational ambitions even after giving birth?

The justification for the study

Through this study, there is going to an understanding of the leading causes of the increase in the prevalence of the student mothers in the Pader district.  It will also give much also come up with some profound intervention programs that are geared towards ensuring a tremendous reduction in the advent of student mothers. Finally, it is through this research that we would understand the various ways and means through which the student parents are deemed to accomplish their educational studies even after the giving birth.

Literature Reviews and the Theoretical Framework

In the current context of the placement of the women in the society, the women have been despised in the community.  Some of the issues that are very critical issues that the women face are the role of the women as culture dictates.  In the various tribes that inhabit Uganda, women are seen to have the role of bearing children and ensuring that they take care of the children at home while their husbands are supposed to look for ways to fend them.  In thus prospect, the women are expected not to make any leadership decisions (Ahikire, And Madanda, 2011, p.33).  Additionally, the women in these tribes have no right to question the decisions that have been made that affect them.  They are expected to be quite submissive to their husbands and respect them to the logical end.  The decision on marriage times and who to get married to is not for them to make. Instead, they are expected to respect the decision made by their parents in a choice of the husband and when to get married (Nafukho,  Amutabi, & Otunga, 2005, P.44)).  The close following of the traditional demands will allow these women to get married at their tender age.  Since their parents do not need their consent, they would only accept their condition in the society to bring on board the advent of early marriage (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.19).

The Ugandan constitution has been amended to react on the notion of early marriages and high prevalence of the school dropouts which are mostly women, and yet these amendments do not take effect. The main reason for this assumption is because the people of these communities in Pader are so much into the tradition and would go against the government rules and regulation on the women rights to education and not allow them to continue with education (Tamusuza, 2011, P.75).  Additionally, the men who are mostly the legislators have not put the stringent measures to restrain the cultures which do not exemplify the women rights to education.  For example, it is very rare to find a person being arrested for forcing her child to get married at a tender age. Furthermore, these legislators have not provided a profound policy framework in which the rights of the student women could be guarded (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.88). 

According to Azikiwe, (1992, p.22), a country which does not give much attention to the women empowerment will eventually experience the high level of decline in the social and economic grounds.  One of the areas that he postulates is the need to educationally empower the girl child.  The women make the best managers across the world of today and with this in mind, the right to education of feminine gender is quite essential. On the stance of the economic factors, the women have been proven to be quite decision makes who provides an informed choice to the various investment decisions across the world.  Policies have been drafted to curb the notion of early marriages among the different parties at hand, but this seems to be quite futile in trying to give the women their educational rights (Mervio, 2014, P.38).  One of the reasons for this Advent is the acceptance of the women themselves to the notion of denial of rights.  This is quite evident where the student mothers do not protest of early pregnancies and marriages.  Instead, they submissively accept the decisions given to them by their parents who are rooted into the detrimental fallacies of the little and oppressive culture.

In as much as the  Government of the Republic of Uganda has remarkably made progress in escalating literacy and accessibility to education in all phases of educational curriculum, the chances of antagonism of a full sequence of education still linger as a challenge as a consequence of the high amount of the school dropouts amongst the student mothers (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.55). In this great country of Uganda, about 24% of adolescent females become pregnant even before they reach the age of 19 years old(UDHS). Further, the numeral is higher (45%) for girls who are not educated than 16 % of young females who have accomplished school (UBO) and (comprehensive International Inc. 2011). Out of 12 reasons driving the dropping out of school for the Uganda, Pregnancy is seen to be the highest factor which is substantially accounting for 59% of dropouts Ugandan school dropouts, (2012). In the district of Pader, this area has been highly influenced by Lord Resistance Army War culminating into displacement that brings on board the advent of Forced war, early marriage, instigating school dropouts. There is an elevated probability that these students who are parenting are not able to get back to school amidst this warfare due to several bases in the region (Alma, O and Kamusiime, A (forthcoming: 4). Hence, no officially authorized position recognizes girls to carry on with education after being disqualified owing to pregnancy by the Education advocator.

The high level of dropping out is instigated by the situations that these student mothers undergo.  The recent past, there has been the great notion of violence in this region of Pader district.  The poverty levels that these wars bring on to the area make it quite volatile regarding security and the possibility of staying in the area.  As it stands, the government has not escalated the policies that would ensure that the peaceful coexistence among the people in this area.  The transcending effect of this move is that the student mothers who have been expelled from school will try to seek refuge from those other regions (Karpinska, 2008, P.66). The frustration that comes with childbearing mixed with the advent of learning makes it quite difficult for the student mothers to cope up with the education. The culture has also forged the women to be in such a way that they cannot fend for themselves and be independent regarding providing food for their families.  This notion creates a platform where the women lean more on the men for survival hence they would want to get married very fast without thinking of the education which is much more helpful to them (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.66).  .

In trying to liberate the student mother from this menace they have entered into, there are various issues of concern that needs to be addressed.  One of them is the demystification of the placement of the women in the society as dictated by the cultural norms.  Most countries in Africa have empowered women by ensuring that uncouth cultures are abandoned and the reality of creation of gender balance exemplified. These countries have achieved this notion by making sure that they inculcate the policies that ensure that there is great equality between the sexes among men and women. To this prompt, the women are given the equal opportunity to education just as men. In carrying out this notion, the women have been placed at the center of everything where the government has instructed that every community must take their child to school, and it has also made the cost of education to be quite affordable (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.98).  .  The affordability is seen to come on board at the point where the government has subsidized the cost of education and by allowing the free primary education to various students whether it is the girls or the boys. This kind of equality needs to be backed by the profound notion of demystifying the low placement of the girl child in the community as dictated by the cultural norms practiced in the African context.

The right to education is quite essential for every individual in every country.  As it stands, every individual has the right proper education, and this entails both the male and the female persons in the society. (The constitution of Uganda pg. 25 (XIV) b). In the global stance, the notion of high level of education has been spearheaded by various documents that try to give the right to education to the every individual in any country.  Some of the very vital documents that outline the rights to education of each person are such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 28, the African Charter on the Rights. And Welfare of the Child, (Article 11), United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Ugandan government has been on the forefront in making sure that the educational stance of the girl child is up to date.  This notion has been brought by the fact the women placement in the society has been deteriorated, and this has hit a high level of societal neglect which is quite detrimental to the women in this country (Karpinska, 2008, P.46).

 At the national government level, the government has tried to have a strong stance of promotion of the women rights through the inception of the programs that favors the girl child education and reduces the notion of impunity and early marriages to the young women of the society.  Even as the government does this act of spearheading the rights to education to the women in Uganda, there are still various areas of concern that needs to be addressed since these rights are still not fully exploited by the women shown by the high level of school dropouts which emanates from the females over the years.  It is now quite imperative to look into the real reasons why the women are not still in a position to fully exploit their rights to education (Olinga, and Lubyayi, 2004, P.58).  .

METHODOLOGY

The research studies design

To get to understand the various ways in which the high prevalence of dropout of the student mothers and the policy framework to be instituted herein, this research will take a mixed research design.  This design would include a longitudinal descriptive design and also the qualitative questioning of the various respondents.  The quantitative data would be used in making sure that we understand the relationship between the framework policy effectiveness and the reduction in the school dropouts. Furthermore, the analysis will also entail the qualitative analysis of the contents of the various literature gathered to accentuate this topic.  The main reason for this mixed study design is to allow for the inception of the profound policies which are both accepted by the moral standards as well as the opinions of the populace with which we are studying.

More characteristically, the mixed technique method is deemed to use an entrenched correlation plan founded on the research hypothesis. Qualitative and Quantitative statistics will be collected concurrently with the various situates of data of asymmetrical credence. Affiliated timing refers to the historical connection between the qualitative and quantitative constituents contained in the study and tentatively the two sets of statistics was gathered, investigated, and construed at the in tandem. The study is anticipated to mix the two sets of statistics at the blueprint stage, with the qualitative statistics embedded in the quantitative figures. Accordingly, qualitative data will play an incremental role in the wholesome quantitative plan. This influencing will mainly be resolved by the analysis questions and the exploitation of data collection systems. 

The population study and the sampling method

In this research, our population consists of residents of Pader district who are at the age of between 14 years and 35 years. This period is deemed to be quite active, and it is along this range of age that we get the student mother. The information about the population will be gathered at the various hospitals where these persons bear their children. Additionally, the target group will be the different school teachers and the community members of Pader district. For the literacy works, we would gather the various data on the various government websites that are deemed to be quite substantial for our research. The sampling that will be used in this study would be the stratified sampling method where the population will be categorized into strata, and the sample will be chosen from the same.

Data collection method

For this study, the best data collection method to be used is the use of the questionnaires where the respondents will be asked to fill in the questionnaires and analysis done on them.  The questionnaire will be in two forms, the printed questionnaires, and the Internet-based surveys.  This notion is to cater for both the person who can and cannot access the internet platform. Another form of data collection method that would be utilized is the use of the in-depth interviews which are quite essential for getting the comprehensive first-hand information from the respondents. The prompting questions are very essential for the inception of various perceptions the student mothers have on the notion of their rights to education

Data analysis

The different statistical techniques that would be used here are the correlation and regression analysis to understand the relationship between the policy framework and the prevalence of the school dropouts. Additionally, the descriptive statistics will be employed to give the right description of the various independent variables that have been postulated in the study. The data collected from the in-depth interview and the questionnaires will be scrutinized by the getting the coefficient of determination to understand their authenticity in trying to accentuate the data representation of facts about the topic of study.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, this proposal is geared towards unveiling the reasons for the rise of the student mothers and the school dropouts. It will also help us understand the current policy framework on the rights of education on young student parents and how best it can be improved. This methodology used will helps get the best results from the study.

 

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