Donald Super’s life-span, life-space theory posits that career development is a process that happening throughout an individual’s life. As one develops within a career, he or she obtains job satisfaction through physical and mental growth. This growth is experienced in many ways including gaining further education in ones’ career line, gaining experiences, identifying with working adults and identifying with general environment. Super further identified an important and inevitable aspect of life that makes people to differently balance life. According to Super, people do not have the same context affordabilities in life and this subjects them to different life spaces determined by personal and situational factors. These factors include needs, values, family, and country of residence, economic situations and racial bias among others. These are the factors that shape career choices and must be managed to ensure success is achieved.
The social cognitive career theory explains that career development is determined by three aspects which interrelate. The first aspect is the way basic academic and interests develop. The second aspect is how people make choices of education and career and finally, how these individuals attain success in their education and career. The theory assumes that people obtain interests and choose to pursue activities in which they are efficient. For example, one can have confidence in performing tasks within the scientific field thus chooses a profession and career within that area. The theory also mentions that individuals will pursue their choices if given support from the surrounding environment.
The two theories are similar in explaining why people choose different career paths. Both theories make it clear that personal factors and external factors determine interests, profession, and career choices.
The counseling and ethical issues involved in Fernando’s case are sexual orientation concerns, stress, cross-cultural competence, conflict of interest and racism. As Fernando’s counselor, I would first clarify to Fernando the issues he might be facing at work which include discrimination based on sexual orientation and race. I would tell him these two could have created conflicts between his workmates in the workplace may be because they are not activists of homosexuality or may be because they see he is taking their jobs away while he should be working in his home country. I would make him understand that people face such problems in a foreign country and to succeed in his career, he needs to cope and manage the stress that comes along. If he does not, then he is just diminishing his career path and consequently failing himself.
I would explain to Fernando that it is his right to choose his sexual orientation and he should be confident about himself because the country he is living in respects his right for who is his. Therefore, he should disregard the few that try to lower his self-esteem and consider focusing on his dreams. I would also show him the positive side of working in a foreign country which is incorporating cultural diversity. I would not ignore that Fernando is stressed and could be depressed and as such, inform him how bad depression can be and his need to deal with stressful events by taking control of himself and probably give him tips on managing stress.
In the case of job dismissal and fear of deportation, I would assure him that there are legal processes to be followed and that his case would be investigated before such steps can be taken. In case things do not work out well, his parents are the best people who can understand and believe him no matter how strict they may be.