Sample Public Administration Essay Paper on Assessing the Writing Achievement of Young Struggling Writers


Distinguish between the following kinds of derived scores: percentiles, standard scores, and develop examples as to when you’d use them in research, i.e. score and share results with parents?

Percentiles are test scores that compare a child’s academic performance with other students. For instance, a student who scores the 68th percentile out of 200 students is said to have performed better than 136 students. Standard scores are an assessment that determines whether a child’s academic performance is below average, average or above average (Graham 73). Standard scores compare a child’s performance with respect to other students who take part in a regional or national exam. For instance, all students who perform below 50% are considered to be below average. However, students with performances above 50% are considered to be above average.

Discuss the role of school counselors, school psychologists, learning disability specialists, school social workers, and private practice clinicians in the assessment of educational ability.

School counselors are tasked with improving social, academic and behavioral growth among students. They work in collaboration with other teaching staff and parents. School psychologists are assigned the role of improving the learning experience among children. They work with local authorities and a school’s administration to improve learning standards among students. Learning disability specialists ensure that all students with physical disabilities achieve the same quality of education as other children (Brookhart 805). They use special skills and evaluation criteria to measure the performance of students with special education needs. School social workers ensures that students develop social and interaction needs using professional counseling guidance. For instance, they guide teenage students on social expectations in the community such as dressing patterns and hygiene. Private practice clinicians attend to the medical needs of students such as providing and administering medicine to children.

Choose one assessment in which you find practical. Explain the assessment, i.e. strengths and weaknesses, population you’d use the assessment, how you’d score the assessment and viable treatment options based off the results.

Diagnostic assessment is the best practice assessment that improves the quality of learning among children. A teacher needs to understand the levels of skills and academic capability of students (Graham 75). Teaching a class blindly – without knowing whether the students are following along – might not achieve certain learning outcomes. The main strength of diagnostic assessment is that it ensures all students develop their academic skills uniformly. No student is left behind in terms of academic progress. This assessment is time-consuming and tedious to many teachers. Its main weakness is that some students require additional resources to keep up the learning pace with other students.

An individual receives a raw score of 62 on a national standardized test. Given that the mean and standard deviation of the test were 58 and 8, respectively, find the individual’s z-score.

Z score = ((62-58)/8) = 0.5

Using the z-score found above, find the following derived scores:

Percentile (approximate) 

X (Percentile) = 58 + 0.5(8) = 62


T Score = (Z*10) + 50 = 0.5(10) + 50 = 55

Deviation IQ

IQ = (Z*15)100 = (0.5*15)100 = 750

Sten score

Sten = (Zx2) + 5.5 = (0.5×2) + 5.5 = 6.5

Normal curve equivalent (NCE)

NCE = Raw Score * New Deviation Value = 62*750 = 48750

SAT-type score

62 + 48750 = 48,812

i. A publisher-type score that has a mean of 75 and standard deviation of 15

75/15 = 5

Work Cited

Brookhart, Susan M., et al. “A century of grading research: Meaning and value in the most    common educational measure.” Review of Educational Research 86.4 (2016): 803-848.

Graham, Steve, et al. “Assessing the writing achievement of young struggling writers:             Application of generalizability theory.” Learning Disability Quarterly 39.2 (2016): 72-      82.