Sample Psychology Paper on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

            Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most challenging and troublesome of all childhood-onset disorders. Given the prevalence of ADHD, considerable research has explored treatment options for this population. Despite the vast amount of literature and information on the condition, “ADHD is frequently misunderstood and misconceived causing misdiagnosis among children (Haraway & Barry, 2016). Guardians and professionals often misinterpret the behavior of a child with ADHD and consider the child as rude, disobedient, and unmotivated. Many even question the legitimacy of the condition, believing that it has been created to improve parents of the responsibility and blame for their child’s strange behavior (Haraway & Barry, 2016). Some believe that the condition is caused by genetic and biological functions, whereas others believe that the condition is caused by environmental factors, such as the parent-child interaction.  Literature reviews and meta-analyses of treatment options suggest substantial progress and effectiveness through medical management, psychosocial interventions, and educational treatments.

Common in mid-adolescence, there is a strong drive to develop social identity and establishing meaningful interpersonal relationships. The digital media transformation provides numerous social connection avenues that enable teens to connect with dozens of peers via group texts simultaneously(Ra et al., 2018). The development of social media has allowed instant communication globally within short durations. More sophistication in the digital era has enabled video telephony, which facilitates face-to-face interaction with people in different places. During this development stage, teens develop high neural plasticity that results in the maturation of the brain circuity controlling attention and behavior control. During this maturation, teens get exposure to factors that may adversely affect neurodevelopment.

ADHD course is heterogeneous with varying symptoms as well as risks. Initially, ADHD is usually a childhood-onset disorder although it can begin in adolescence and adulthood. Most recent researches demonstrate that adolescent and adult-onset ADHD symptoms follow unpredictable paths over time. Adult-onset is associated with adverse social and health effects. The association of ADHD with digital media introduces a non-causal mechanism that comprises mainly of reverse causation (Ra et al., 2018). This trajectory highlights the association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to sensation seeking, which motivates the use of digital media to satisfy the drive for stimulation. Excessive digital media use may be a manifestation of undiagnosed ADHD that did not occur at the baseline.

The association of ADHD with digital media use could also be derived from predisposing factors including environmental and genetic influences. Parents with a history of ADHD, substance abuse, and other impulsive characters may lax in their parenting responsibilities including restricting child digital media use. Unlimited access to digital media increases the risk of developing ADHD and emotional as well as behavioral imbalances among children, especially if the engagement lasts for several hours (Ra et al., 2018). Much may depend on the frequency of disruption, device engagement, and the type of social interactions they build. Teens with constant notification for messages or tasks on-device applications may find it difficult to stay engaged and focused for long on specific tasks such as schoolwork. Consequently, frequent disruption interrupts the normative development of sustained attention as well as organizational skills.  Binge film watching, together with getting used to rapid feedback may also disrupt the development of essential virtues such as patience, honesty, impulse control, and delaying gratification.


Howard, J. (2018). ADHD study links symptoms with screen time. Retrieved from

Ra, C., Cho, J., Stone, M., Cerda, J., Goldenson, N., & Moroney, E. (2018). Retrieved from (2018). Retrieved from

Haraway, D., & Barry, L. (2016). Self-Management and ADHD: A Literature Review. Retrieved from