Sample Philosophy Essay Summary on Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning refers to a way of decision making based on logical information from various sources. The deductive reasoning can be either sound and valid or unsound and invalid. The sound/ valid argument is based on true statements while the unsound argument is based on false statements (deLaplante, 2013a). For instance, arguing that a particular person will one day because all men have to die at a given point is a sound argument.

However, when the explanation that all men have to die is used to explain why a dog will die, the argument is considered unsound. Validity of any argument is therefore a feature of the argument itself while the soundness or unsoundness of an argument depends on the intentions of the argument. In an inductive argument, the objective is to provide sufficiently strong facts that can be used in decision making.

The conclusion drawn in an inductive argument depends on the quality of the premises provided in support of the argument. For instance, it would be appropriate and allowable to draw the conclusion that guitarists feel pain in their hands after playing the guitar for long hours based on the reported observation of three guitarists who have reported the same.

The conclusion drawn from inductive argument depends on the frequency of experience and the probability of happening. If all the statements are true, there is a high probability that the conclusion drawn will also be true. On the other hand, it any of the premises are false, the conclusion is likely to be untrue. The reliability of the conclusion in both inductive and deductive reasoning depends on the truthfulness of statements. However, the two types of argument differ in terms of the relationship created by the arguer between the premises and the conclusion (deLaplante, 2013b).


deLaplante, K. (Jan 29, 2013a). What is a Deductive Argument? Deduction and Valid Arguments. Retrieved from

deLaplante, K. (Feb 1, 2013b). What is an Inductive Argument? Induction and Strong Arguments. Retrieved from

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