Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Extrinsic and intrinsic factors of motivation

Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors of motivation

Question 1

CategoriesExtrinsic (external)Intrinsic (internal)
Job Content CharacteristicsLeadership levelJob identificationJob importanceProfessional growthOpportunity to exploreDecision-makingSense of competenceCreativity opportunitiesDeveloping own goalsDelegated management
Work EnvironmentAdequate staff membersCollective teamworkEmpowermentSufficient resourcesClear organizational policyReinforcing self-esteemProfessionalismSocial acceptancePositive interactions with co-workersAbility to deal with a harsh work environment
LeadershipMentorship Delegation of dutiesEncourage participation and decision-makingPromote motivationDemonstrate trust and respectFeel empoweredThe sense of self- efficacyConfidence in managementKnowledge of feedbackIndependence and freedom
BenefitsAdministration of fair wages and salaryFinancial Motivations retirement pensionInsurance benefitsTime off paymentSense of appreciated Salary satisfactionFinancial rewardProfit sharing satisfactionCommission satisfaction

Two a.

The quality patient outcome as well depends on the nurses’ willingness to apply their knowledge and skills in taking care of the patient (Dunn, 2015). The excellent quality patient outcome is possible if there is effective leadership that brings into account expectations, motivation, and empowerment of nurses. Effective leadership should as well provide favorable working condition and build confidence with nurses (papathanasiou et al., 2014). However, motivation plays an important towards attaining quality the patient care.


Demotivates can lead to an employer becoming lazy, frustrated, hostile, defensive, and inflexible (Dunn, 2015). The employees may develop the characteristics of low self- esteem, absenteeism, apathy, low productivity, and misplaced priorities.


Organizational citizenship is related to employees’ role in achieving organizational goal. It encompasses anything positive that employees voluntarily do for themselves and company benefits (Dunn, 2015). It is important in the employees’ role in motivation as it helps the employee to understand their values, beliefs, and attend to their internal forces.


Transactional leadership style involves social exchange. The leaders develop performance standards for their employees to adhere to and in return reward the employees. The second style is the passive-avoidant leadership is more of authority oriented. The leaders do not involve the employees in important organizational issues and decision-making (Frooman et al., 2012). The employees feel demotivated and in return feel reluctant to commit towards the achievement of the organizational goals. The third leadership theory is transformational. The leadership style is the most appropriate towards achieving organizational goals and ensuring job satisfaction. Transformational involves leaders setting up a good rapport with their employees. The authority provides total inclusive and participation of employees to organization issues (Frooman et al., 2012). The leadership style as well provides employees empowerment and delegation of preference and choices.


Empowerment is the significant aspect of transformational leadership which is the amplified state of motivation (Dunn, 2015). Empowerment creates a sense of trust, respect, and confidence among employees. Empowerment also challenges leaders to involve their employees in formal and non-formal controls.


Job satisfaction is the personal affective and cognitive condition response towards a job outcome whereas motivation is individuals’ intensity and attitudes that inspire them to better their task performance. Motivation is also the thrust to pursue and satisfy needs.


Dunn, D. (2015). Motivation: What makes you tick? Nurse Journal, 9(2), 38-47 doi-10.1097/01.ORN.0000460902.65598.e0

Frooman, J., Mendelson, M. B., & Kevin Murphy, J. (2012). Transformational and passive-avoidant leadership as determinants of absenteeism. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(5), 447-463.

Papathanasiou, I. V., Fradelos, E. C., Kleisiaris, C. F., Tsaras, K., Kalota, M. A., & Kourkouta, L. (2014). Motivation, leadership, empowerment, and confidence: their relation with nurses’ burnout. Material socio-media, 26(6), 405.