Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Basic Health Care System Models

Basic Health Care System Models

Summary of the differences between the models

There are several differences in the American health care models. All these models originated from different places. For instance, the Bismarck model originated from Germany. Therefore, the health policies in Germany are the same as those in the Bismarck model. According to Ginsburg (2012), in the Beveridge model, the government through taxes provides for care services. Most health facilities are therefore government property. Doctors employed by the government solely rely on it for salaries while private doctors collect fees from the government. In this plan, the government controls the services patients pay for. Citizens on the other hand indirectly provide for the services they receive. The Bismarck model applies the insurance system. The insurers are mostly referred to as the sickness funds. The employees and employers equally finance this insurance in the form of a payroll deduction. The model is intended to cover everybody, as it remains non-commercial. Hospitals and doctors prefer to stay private as the government assumes part of the expenses.

National insurance comprises of elements realized in both Bismarck and Beveridge models (Joshi, 2014). Private sector contributors supply services while payment is collected from insurance programs, which are run by the government. Every citizen contributes to the amount the government uses to pay for the services while the private hospitals provide the services. No marketing and profits are realized in this model. Hence, there are no claims and financial motives. The insurance programs in this model are cheaper than in Bismarck and Beveridge separately. The administration is much easier as it simplifies the processes of accessing services and payments for services rendered (Joshi, 2014). This model is preferable than the American form of profit insurance programs. The patient can negotiate the prices of commodities such as drugs. The national health insurance has the ability to manage the costs as it controls the medical services rendered to patients and the number of times the patients are to receive the services.

According to Joshi (2014), the out-of-pocket model demands less organization as compared to Beveridge, Bismarck, and national insurance. Health insurance is therefore unnecessary. The patients pay for the services received. Therefore, in this model, the rich are sure to acquire the best medical services in terms of quality. Consequently, there are different categories of hospitals and services offered depending on the cost and the amount to be paid.

            All these models are different (Joshi, 2014). The Beveridge is similar to the single payer national service because payment is released from one source only. The Bismark model is a non-profit insurance program while the out-of-pocket model is market driven (Ginsburg, 2012). When the market is in demand for quality care, there is usually an increase in private hospitals. The national insurance models employ the mixed programs. In all these, there is need for development and management of the health sector. All these programs have further enabled the country to manage most of the sicknesses and health complications. The future of the health care in USA is therefore promising since the citizens have a choice of the kind of health program they are to choose. The models describe the present health care. It is necessary to control the general costs from a particular department while maintaining the quality of care.

References

Joshi, M. National Association of Health Care Quality: Journal of Health Care Quality.2014.

            Vol. 36. Issue 6

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291945-1474

Ginsburg, B. P. Fee-for-Service will Remain a Feature of major payment Reforms, requiring

            more changes in Medicare Physician Payment: Health Affairs. 2012. Vol. 31.Issue 9

http://www.hschange.com/…/1310/