20th Century Art Work in Western Civilization
Art works created in the twentieth century include paintings and architecture. The modern art in the 20th century entailed several movements and attitudes that were aimed at changing from the traditional and historic forms of artwork. This was aimed at coming up with modern art that reflects the developed social, economic and intellectual settings.
Contemporary design and architecture in the twentieth century entailed different aspects and elements in their original forms. The period featured several changes from the traditional inelastic guidelines in classical architecture. Artistic and visual functions are integrated with an aim of bringing about the magnificence of raw material used and excellent design employment that many people would love to see. The famous architect Henry Russel who said there is no better name that has been discovered to call the characteristics of architecture in the twentieth century ascertained this phenomenon.
Architects in the twentieth century did not wake up from nowhere and started constructing their buildings. They came up with different ideas about construction that were distinct from the sole design, which had been the traditional philosophy of old architects. This philosophy is asserted in the work of Jonathan Glancey, the author of the book 20th Century Architecture. According to the twentieth century architects, structures used in building and construction focused more on transformation, which is considered an attitude and not style. Different architect’s necessities that were needed in the traditional architecture were also discarded.
Specific materials used in the twentieth century architecture include glass, steel, concrete and wood. The architecture employed did not include traditional forms of ornamentation since focus was put on the materials used to remain in their natural form. Another important feature art in the twentieth century that people would love to see is the integration of modest and efficient method where there are establishments of spaces with decent lines and angles together with attractive curves along the edges.
There were however several other artistic styles, which were incorporated in the twentieth century. These were also as a result of different group beliefs and holdings. The expressionists for instance employed concrete that was focused on giving buildings and other structures very high textual feeling. Futurists on the other hand were another group of whose artistic approach focused more on modern technology and innovation. Under futurism, architecture was associated with the changing swift pace of life together with linear styles. Another important element of architectural design developed in the twentieth century was incorporation of graphic arts. Here, different range of movements and concepts were integrated with an integrated with an intention of discarding ancient concords in order to reflect the contemporary facets of life both socially, economically and intellectually.
Painting originated from France in the early nineteenth century. For instance, it included the works of Gustave Courbet. The impressionist at this point in time had pointed out displeasures with the existing academic state and pleaded for a more natural depiction in the visual world. The beginning of 1980s saw the creation and development of several movements and artistic styles that were stood for high points in the western visual philosophy. These included symbolism, neo impressionism, and expressionism among others. Their main feature was the representation of a change in life situation in the western culture in the twentieth century. These groups and movements were inspired by the new technological innovation and advancement through knowledge development and better understanding.
The Second World War also was among others one of the great factors that steered the growth of architecture in the twentieth century which became an important facet both in the European culture and the United States. Other factors such as social are considered to be among drivers of modern architecture in the western society. Under social provisions, modern art and architecture was expanded as a result of social and political uprisings. Technological advancement and innovation also steered the engineering practices in construction, which led to establishment of modern architecture.
The expressionists were part of the architectural organization movement in the northern part of Europe in the nineteenth century. According to expressionist, sculptural methods and incorporation of concrete was core to them. Their structures were characterized by original materials, official innovation and ordinary biophormic forms through production of brick, steel and glass.
Towards the end of the Second World War, there was a massive revolution in the architecture sphere. Innovations and the construction sector received a lot of demand. This had a positive influence in the architectural and building sector in the western society. Several industrial products were utilized during wartime, which made them scarce. The available industrial materials were also in high demand by other sectors like transport and infrastructure. Consequently, other construction materials in architecture had to be adopted to fill in the scarce resources. There are specific areas, which required several constructions from architects such as the military and government facilities together with private and public housing as result of the war. All these demands led to different numerous experiments in the architectural field and establishment of fabricated buildings.
In 1932 before the Second World War, there was an international exhibition in the United States for contemporary architecture held in New York. This event was organized by Philip Jonson and Henry Hitchcock who brought together different trend and styles of architecture. The diverse varieties and trends in architecture were combined together as having a common purpose, which resulted to the formation of one international style. This marked an important turn around in the architectural field but was overshadowed by other several styles, which emerged during the war period and thereafter. After the Second World War, prominent figures in architecture like Bauhaus, Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius fled from Germany to the United States. Marcel and Gropius enrolled for a course in design at Harvard Graduate School of Design and Gropius became part of the Harvard Five Group. Several other figures in architecture spread in different parts of the Great Britain, Palestine and other areas making a great impact in the architectural industry like the construction and design of the white city of Tel Aviv.
Modern architecture developed in the western society in the twentieth century gained momentum after the Second World War. Several architects integrated modernity. Architectural education was also incorporated in several learning institutions, which have seen the emergence of different buildings in the twentieth century. Modern architecture that began in the twentieth century incorporated the different ideologies of architectural field together with new technological advancement. This is reflection of modern buildings and structures seen in modern cities across the western society.