Compare and Contrast the “Batch Flow” and “Continuous Flow” as Related to a) Capital b) Process Speed c) Pacing d) Bottlenecks e) Material Requirements
Batch flow entails processing bulk material in batches through every required stage. Other batches are processed after the one in progress is completed. Continuous flow processing entails the movement of one work unit at a time between every stage of the process without breaks in time, order, material or degree. Continuous flow requires much capital and machines are fully utilized most of the time. On the other hand, batch flow is labor intensive even though fewer machine are left idle. The processing speed of continuous flow is fast whereas, in batch flow, it is quite slow. Batch flow is worker paced while continuous flow is controlled technologically and developed into equipment. Moreover, in batch flow, bottlenecks are transferable but frequently forecasted while in continuous flow they are known and immovable. The material requirements in batch flow are usually placed statistically in narrow functional bounds whereas, in a continuous flow, they become certain after the production plan is determined.
Briefly Discuss the Concept of the “Cost of Quality” Consider Both the Positive and Negative Cost Associated With a Typical Program in a Manufacturing Facility
The cost of quality comprises two major components, which include the cost of good quality (cost of conformance) and the cost of poor quality (cost of non-conformance). The cost of poor quality affects internal and external costs due to failure to meet the requirements. Internal failure costs emanate from products or services not complying with requirements or clients’ needs and are discovered before products and services are delivered to external clients. Such costs can result in client discontent if not identified in time. Defects arise from faults in products and inadequacies in processes, for example, costs for reworking, delaying, scarcities and inflexibility and rigidity. External failure costs stem from faults discovered after products and services are delivered to external clients, which result in client dissatisfaction. They include complaints, fixing products and repeating services, guarantees, environmental expenses, and deficits caused by reduced sales. The cost of good quality affects costs devoted to the eradication of non-conformance to requirements and costs for assessing a product or service for conformance to requirement. Avoidance costs entail costs of every action meant for averting poor quality products or services. They include costs for quality planning, assessment of suppliers, evaluation of new products, proofing faults, assessment of competence as well as quality training. Appraisal costs arise from the necessity of controlling products and services to enhance high-quality level in every phase and adherence to quality standards as well as the performance requirement. Appraisal costs include costs for examining and experimenting services and goods bought, field analysis, product, process or service audits, and standardization of evaluation and test tools. Total quality costs refer to the sum of all the costs.
Discuss Production Planning as it relates to: a) Job Shop b) Batch Flow c) Continuous Flow
A job shop process establishes the flexibility required in manufacturing different types of products or services in substantial amounts. Customization is comparatively high, and the volume of any product or service is low. Additionally, the personnel as well as equipment are flexible and multitask. Firms that prefer a job process normally bid for work. They produce products to be ordered and do not create them in advance. The exact needs of the next client are not known, and the scheduling of recurrence orders from same clients are unforeseen. In a job shop, every new order is addressed as a sole unit-a job. The process mainly entails the utilization of adaptable flow strategy, whereby resources are prearranged around the process. Many jobs have varied arrangements of processing stages.
Batch flow procedures have moderate volumes; however, diversity continues to be too great to permit devotion of many resources to every product or service. Its flow pattern is random, and it lacks a typical order of processes in the entire facility. Nevertheless, additional dominant paths arise than at a job shop and certain sections of the process contain a linear flow. Batch flow volumes can be higher since related products or services are generated recurrently. A narrower range of goods and services is offered, and diversity is attained mainly through an assemble-to-order technique. Moreover, certain components of the end product or service may be created beforehand. In batch flow procedures, manufacture lots or client groups are managed in batches or larger amounts. A single product or client’s batch is processed, and production is later changed over to the next in line. Finally, the first product or service is created once more.
A continuous flow process refers to the deep end of high-volume, uniform manufacturing with inflexible line flows as well as firmly connected process segments. The term stems from the manner in which resources move through the process. Normally, a key material like gas, powder or liquid moves continuously through the facility. This procedure requires a lot of capital and run round the clock to make the best use of and prevent costly shutdown and start-ups.
Discuss How Just-In-Time Manufacturing Might Affect a Machine-Paced Process Line Flow?
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing enhances the functioning of a machine-paced process line flow. It removes waste and reduces work in progress. Additionally, JIT enables the manufactured products to meet their immediate demand. It focuses on quality, as it reduces costs and increases profits by generating high-quality products. JIT also enables appropriate and effective conversion of quality products from raw materials into finished goods with no delay. Its negative effects include inexperienced employees failing to make quality products because of improper or infrequent training. JIT can affect external operations through fostering competitive bidding among vendors to offer the required inventory. Occasionally, JIT can result in conflict between established vendors and the firm when they are overtaken by a different vendor. This may damage the business relationship.
Discuss Bottlenecks and their Causes. Provide Examples for both Manufacturing and Service Environments
A bottleneck refers to a business operation or stage in a workflow process that limits effective production. Manufacturing bottlenecks entail utilization of equipment and work procedures. In a manufacturing resource, bottlenecks include outdated equipment that do not function effectively. When workers, other tools, and work processes are up-to-date, any equipment in the production process can result in delays. Secondly, overstrained equipment can fail, which causes interruptions for maintenance as well as repairs. It hinders the production process and causes workers to become idle. Thirdly, in high-skilled manufacturing factories or in corporations that focus on the specialization of labor, any absent employee can slow production. In the service environment, bottlenecks take place during peak service times, such as morning tea, lunch, evening meals, and in organized promotional seasons and launch of a new product. The management can develop a cultured forecast, but it still runs out of products to sell to clients. The service industry predicts client’s needs by having ready apple pies, yoghurts, as well as salads all the time to be consumed with the major food they prepare hoping that no bottlenecks will arise.