Sample Literature Review Paper on Research Methodology

Introduction of Chapter
In previous chapter literature and introduction of interested phenomena (job satisfaction)
was discussed. And this chapter tells the way by which overall research was conducted by
elaborating which research methodology is picked, detailed information of the design and
methods of the current research, description of the population and sampling strategy used to
collect data. The basic features and aspects of the sample are explained with details of used
measures for assessment and procedure.
The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of job satisfaction
facets or factors and overall job satisfaction level to determine the influence of personal & job
factors and evaluate the perceived importance of particular factors on job satisfaction. The
secondary objective is comparing the satisfaction level of private and public life assurance
3.2 Research Design
Babbie and Mouton (2006:74) discuss a research design as a master plan or pattern of how the
researcher desires to conduct the research that indicates a connection between the philosophical
presumptions to particular methods. For Bless, Higson-Smith and Kagee (2006:71), the research
design is a way used to test hypotheses as it details what strategies and tools will be practiced
during the enquiry for the purpose of properly answer the research questions or check a specific
hypothesis under given circumstances. According to research question, relevant research design
is chosen so that collected data accurately answers the required query. The research question of
this research is to investigate the factors that influence the current level of job satisfaction among

policyholders of life insurance companies. Correlation research design was used in this study
.Although quantitative approaches have been used to gather responses, the size of sample
selected on the basis of the population size, and the questionnaire has been used as instrument
via descriptive survey.
3.3 Research Approaches

Research approaches can be divided into three types: qualitative, quantitative and mixed research
and selection can be made from these categories (Kumar, 1999). This research is conducted on
quantitative based methods which deal with explaining some sort of phenomena of interest
statistically and then collecting numerical facts for analysis (Muijs 2004, 1)
3.3.1 Quantitative Research

In quantitative research responses are taken in such form that can be analyzed by using
mathematical methods. It also discusses the procedure of collection and analysis at different
stages like questionnaire. Further it elaborates the criteria for ascertaining authentication,
normality and effectiveness of the research.
Quantitative research is a deductive approach i.e. formulation of hypotheses, introducing
variables accordingly which could assess the objectives and such evaluation then used for
investigation. Then collected response data is used for testing of formulated hypotheses which
really explain the reality. Finally the results of investigation are compared with original
hypotheses to modify or accept the theory from which original hypotheses was obtained.
3.3.2 Cross-sectional study design

In this research cross-sectional strategy is used for this particular research design enclosed with
research problem. In this type of research study, whether the entire population or a subset
computed is selected, and from these respondents, data are collected by answering research
questions of interest. So the information about factors of job satisfaction and job satisfaction that
is collected represents effects of factors over job satisfaction level of sales agents working in
SLIC and EFU life assurance companies by using descriptive survey
3.4 Research Methodology

Babbie (2004:6) defines methodology as “the science of finding out”. It focuses on the research
procedure and the type of instruments or device. In this research methodology, sample was
chosen from selected population. Overall sampling plan was developed to depict the process by
selecting sample; fixing the sample size and other arrangement to conduct survey. For data
collection survey was organized by distribution of questionnaire to selected respondents.
Respondent were informed about the nature and purpose of the research.
3.3.1 Population of the study

McMillan and Schumacher (2006:119) describe a population as a group of persons, objects or
events that have some common features that comply with certain criteria and to which the
researcher expect to generalize the results of the research. There are five life insurance
companies working to covers against their risk and indemnify in case of loss. The population of
this research comprises employees of one top ranked private and one public life assurance
companies in Lahore region. The researcher selected life assurance companies in insurance

sector because employees are basic asset of this sector and it contributes a lot in GDP of
Pakistan. Total employees in Lahore region is approximately 450.
3.3.2 Sampling technique/strategy

Bickman and Rog (2009:77) argued that sampling refers to the action of choosing a
representative of a research population for data collection. As per required prerequisite of survey
non-random sampling was used. This research used convenience sampling techniques. It’s a type
of non-probability sampling in which response is collected from employees of population that
will be conveniently available. This method is employed to the research because of its simplicity
as well as ease of this study. It is very helpful for hypotheses generation and further pilot study.
In this sampling technique data collection time period will also short as contrast to other methods
and it is also cost effective method (
3.3.3 Sample

Based on above discussion, 2 life assurance companies were selected: one public and one top
ranked private life assurance company in Lahore region to narrow the population to keep the
study at level where accurate affects can be acquired. For this purpose all the branches of
selected life assurance companies in Lahore region were identified, these were 15 (EFU Life
Assurance branch locator, 2015 & SLIC Annual Report, 2015). If it is assumed that average no
of respondents in each branch are 30 then total population will be 450. For 500 population size,
there must be a sample of 200. (krejice & morgan,1970)

State Life Insurance Company is only public life insurance company so it was included in
sample. Among private life insurance companies, EFU Life Assurance Company was included in
the sample as it has largest number of workforce and branches than all private life assurance
companies. The respondents mainly comprised of employees from sales department as according
to the problem at hand this group of employees have considerable amount of job dissatisfaction
in them.
3.3.4 Data Collection Method

In this research primary data is used to collect facts or opinion of respondent. A descriptive and
exploratory survey was conducted by personal interview. . Babbie (2008:278) states that
structured questionnaires are preferable as it is most directly linked to survey research and they
are easy to compute and compile. A structured Likert scale Questionnaire was used as research
tool including 33statements covering all variable. Respondents were asked to rate their opinion
about satisfaction level on a scale of 5. Confidentiality of the opinion and information regarding
the output was assured to respondents. It was also assured to the respondents that there given
information only used for purely for the purpose of the study and they can withdraw from the
survey any time during the research. It takes about 15-20 minutes of the participants to fill the
entire questionnaire. Assessment Measures
Demographical Variables

Demographic Information section includes sex, qualification, martial, family system, salary or
job experience in company etc. Participant’s demographic characteristics were computed

by using descriptive statistics. In case of categorical variable to employees e.g. gender,
Education, age, marital status and experience, the frequency and percentages were
calculated. Mean and standard deviation were tested for age, salary, job experience in
current life assurance company.
Job satisfaction Scale:

The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed by (Brown and Petersen, 1993). This
scale has 2 items with 5 point rating scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. It offers a
reliable and valid general sign of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction questionnaire was
based on overall attitude of an individual by keeping every job facets in mind which
were evaluated through employees’ views. The reliability of the scale according to
author was .87 and the reliability of the scale in current study is .79.
Teamwork scale:

The teamwork questionnaire was derived from JSS specter nine-facet survey
instruments (1997). This scale was also used by Singh Anita (2012) by adding 1 more
item. It contains three items using a Likert-type rating scale format with five ordered
response options ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Teamwork
questionnaire was conducted with main focus to analyze the individual perception
regarding co-ordination among the co-worker. High scoring towards team spirit and
good relationship with peers indicates that employees in insurance sector had relatively
high team spirit and good relations among themselves. Third item of this scale was
reversed prior to analysis.

Working Environment scale:

This work culture questionnaire was developed by Anita (2012). It is a 5 items scale
that indicates working environment at place of work by considering different attributes: job
security, flexibility, free and frequent communication with encouraging and helpful superior,
treated with respect and friendly atmosphere. The response was taken on 5 point likert rating
scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The questionnaire is typically used to measure
working environment. Higher score on scale showed high level of satisfaction level towards
environment in employees. The items (3 & 5) were reversed coded for better interpretation. The
reliability of working environment scale according to author was .79 and in current research it
was .81.
` Leadership scale:

This supervision scale was developed by Anita (2012). It contains 4 items supervisor
scale item by getting response on 5 point likert rating scale. However leadership has
many features but in insurance sector it is measured by the attitude of superiors
towards their subordinates. According this scale considers Caring and Competent
manager. A good leader should be competent enough to guide his subordinates and not
just control them like insensitive beings. The last item (4) was reversed coded.
Salary Scale:

This salary scale questionnaire was developed by Anita (2012). The response was taken
on 5 point likert rating scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. There are five
statements that correlate high with this variable and they are given below in order of
significance given to them i.e fair and equitable salary as per market, Availability of

incremental and fringe benefits and job importance. Equitable salary structure plus
fringe benefits is like a buffer for employees who believes that they are being rewarded
by the company and are receiving something in exchange of business that they
generate. Then attitude towards pay is compared (2) to measure those employees felt
that their salary is not in compliance to their efforts. The 5 th item was inversely recoded.
Work itself scale:

The study of hyder and batool (2013) developed 3 item nature of job questionnaire was
used to measure the perception of employees towards their tasks and duties. Further 2
items job clarity scale by Anita (2012) was used to overall complete the work itself
scale. The response was taken on 5 point likert rating scale from strongly disagree to strongly
agree. This factor comprises the attributes of nature of work (1, 3, 5) and clarity of tasks and
duties (2, 4). The item (5) was inversely recoded.
Growth and recognition Scale:
The important factor that determines the job satisfaction level in the insurance sector is
the availably of growth opportunities to the employees and the level of recognition that
they receive for their participation and work. Growth and recognition questionnaire was
developed by Anita (2012). The response was taken on 5 point likert rating scale from strongly
disagree to strongly agree. The 5 statements that correlate highly with this factor in terms
of their value were constructed. The score towards agree simply indicates that
insurance sector gives growth and learning opportunities to its employees that attracts
job seekers towards this sector. Pilot Study

A pilot study is done to test the accuracy and effectiveness of questionnaire while developing a
measuring instrument for research. It is simply an experiment done on selected small group so
that any mistake regarding language, meaning interpretation etc can be corrected (Green, Tull,
&Albaum, 83 1988, p. 185). For this research pilot study was conducted on 25 selected
participants of life assurance insurance company. Cronbach alpha of all variables scale for this
pilot study was 0.78.

3.3.2 Response Rate

Researcher was personally administering the demographic information questionnaire and other
variable scale. Phone calls and personal visits were done in order to get high response rate. This
survey response is satisfying the condition with respect to Tabachnick and Fidell(2007,pg.123)
formula to compute the ideal sample size, that is, N>50+8*Independent variables.
From the below table, it is clear that out of total 200 questionnaires that were distributed
randomly among SLIC & EFU , 180 were received back. The researcher believed 90% as per
formula to be a sufficiently high response rate. From this response rate, the results can be
effectively generalized in terms of the total population.
Response rate Table of this research is as follows;

Name Total


Not responded

N %
SLIC 100 92 8 92 51
EFU 100 88 12 88 49
TOTAL 200 180 20 180 90

*90% (180) responded questionnaire are used in this research for data analysis
3.3.3 Data Analysis Software and Techniques
After collecting data from respondent, next step is computing and analyzing. In this
research different analysis was run and results and findings were discussed according to
variable or information nature. Descriptive statistics was run to test demographic
characteristics of the respondents. Data normality analysis was applied to check
whether data was normal or not. Psychometric analysis was run to check the
reliabilities of the scales. Pearson product moment correlation was performed to see
the relationship between factors of job satisfaction (work itself, salary, work
environment, teamwork, leadership and growth) and job satisfaction. Regression
analysis was performed to predict the impact and extent of relationship between
independent variables (factors of job satisfaction) and dependent variable (job
satisfaction) .