With the increased emphasis on the organization and functioning of the human society, many scholars conducted different studies to identify some of the factors that influence both personality and community development. For instance, the psychoanalysis theory has over the years been used in explaining certain aspects of human progression. Considerably, this approach was first developed by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th Century and has over the last decades undergone different modifications that try to reduce some of the limitations pointed out by various researchers (Britannica n.p).
According to Freud, the theory can be defined as the approach to understanding personality organization and the dynamics of character development that are applied in the psychoanalysis. Other scholars that contributed to the development and modification of this theory include Fairbairn, D.W Winnicott, John Bowlby, Harry Guntrip, and Paula Heimann (Robbins n.p). Notably, Josef Breuer defined this ideology as the branch of psychology that focuses on the treatment of different medical disorders through the recognition of the various relationships between the unconscious and the conscious minds.
Considerably Sigmund Freud is categorized as one of the most significant scientists in psychiatry and human psychology. Throughout his life, he contributed to the development of different theories and the completion of several studies that help in explaining different human behaviors (Robbins n.p). One of the significant and most documented research by the scientist is the investigation of a hypnosis patient called Bertha Pappenheim, that was later referred to as Anna O. Later in 1896, he introduced the term psychoanalysis that he defined as the treatment of particular mental disorders while emphasizing on the unconscious mental states. Moreover, Freud introduced three agencies that can be used to explain the human personality including ego, ID, and superego that define a different aspect of humans. Similarly, in 1900, the researcher published the book The Interpretation of dreams that he used to explain specific human concepts including mind energy and libido.
Jaques Lacan, on the other hand, rejected any attempts to link psychoanalysis with other theories such as the social approach stating that the human passion is primarily structured by the desires of other and that human beings can express their feelings through relying on other members of the society. Moreover, the scientist considered desire as a social concept while psychoanalysis as a theory that helps in describing human interactions and their effects on the community. Similarly, he explained that human desire is a combination of various aspects including culture language and the spaces between individuals. Notably, the foundation of Lacan’s research was based on Freud’s framework of infant sexuality and deep structures as well as how people can show different behaviors through unconscious replication and stemming. Considerably, this approach aims at dismantling the illusions of self-mastery and the imagery intelligence of completeness. Other main works of Jaques Lacan include the mirror stage, return to Freud and development of fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis
Short Historical Background about the Theory
The psychoanalysis theory was first initiated by Sigmund Freud who conceptualized human personality on different aspects. Considerably, his influence in the field of psychology can be linked to his increased expertise in neurology. However, his studies were a continuation of the research started by Hippolyte Bernheim and Jean-Martin Charcot who discovered that the genesis of hysteria is cognitive but not physiological (Lumen Learning n.p). Later, their technique was adopted by Josef Breuer and Freud who modified the techniques used in the experiments and used a hysteric patient referred to as Anna O. The method involved the introduction of the patient in a hypnotic trance then removing the symptoms through the employment of post-hypnotic suggestion. Consequently, through talking and following her memory, the patient was able to remember some of the events she had forgotten.
Necessarily, the creation of this foundation later led to the development of the psychoanalysis theory by Freud between 1895 and 1905. The initial discoveries by the two scientists helped in the formulation of the topographic model that was divided into different sections including the unconscious, conscious, and preconscious areas. Undoubtedly, the different basics formulated by Freud were modified by other scientists such as Heinz Hartmann, Rene Spitz, and Margret Mahler.
Summary of Psychoanalysis Theory
The psychoanalysis theory explains that human personality is developed from the interactions of the three fundamental structures of the human mind that include ID, ego, and the superego. Notably, both the conflict between these structures and a person’s effort to create a balance between them helps in determining how individuals behave. Considerably, ID is the most primitive structures that are primarily concerned with the gratification of basic human physical needs and operates entirely unconsciously.
Superego, on the other hand, is concerned with the rules and social morals that define the association of the society. Additionally, it develops as an infant discovers the desired cultures by the society. Lastly, ego is considered the most rational part of human personality. It helps in balancing the demands of other personality structures including the id and superego. According to Freud, the three aspects are on constant conflicts and that adult behaviors depend on the result of the conflict.
Britannica. “Psychoanalysis | Definition, Theory, & Therapy.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., 2018. Web. 11 Apr. 2018.
Lumen Learning. “Psychodynamic Perspectives on Personality | Boundless Psychology.” Courses.lumenlearning.com. N.p., 2018. Web. 11 Apr. 2018.
Robbins, Brent Dean. “A Brief History of Psychoanalytic Thought — and Related Theories of Human Existence.” Www5.csudh.edu. N.p., 2018. Web. 11 Apr. 2018.