The total number of countries in the world today is 182. Out of these, only 34 are considered to be developed while 148 are put under the category of under developed countries. A developing country is one which lacks major requirements such as infrastructure, developed levels of agriculture as well as natural resources. Such a nation also suffers from a low level of per capita income due to the challenges it encounters. Contrariwise, a developed country is characterized by a high per capita income, developed natural resources and high industrialization levels.
Over the years, developing countries have been referred to by several terms including under-developed nations, the North, and the South. Majority of these nations are well thought-out to be in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Developing countries face quite a number of challenges, which have already been overcome by the developed countries. First, these countries are characterized by poverty and low living standards (Ross). Most of the citizens in developing nations face the major challenge of enjoying basic needs. A huge percentage of them fail to have a balanced meal, good shelter and clothing. One third of the population is ought to be very poor in such countries.
Countries are considered to be developing since they suffer huge internal and external debts. Nations under this category survive on loans and grants offered to them by the developed countries. Additionally, these nations sorely depend on foreign economic loans for infrastructural development programs. Their political structures are guided by foreigners, who also take charge of the nation’s foreign trade. Thirdly, developing nations have huge population growth rates hence low per capita income. The national income rates in these nations are low leading to their inability to adequately take care of the increasing population (Zafarullah and Huque 76).
Developing countries have overdependence on their agricultural sector. For instance, in Pakistan, agriculture stands out to be the major and main occupation of its citizens. Unfortunately, the populations in the developing countries practice backward agricultural practices due to their lack of exposure as well as inefficiency among the farmers. Most of them have very little or lack agricultural markets and lack access to credit facilities. In developing countries, agriculture contributes approximately 21 percent to GDP while it contributes less than 10 percent in the developed nations. Overdependence on agriculture in the developing countries has ensured an employment rate 45 percent while it stands at less than 5 percent in the developed countries (Eckl and Weber 18). This means that a collapse in the sector may destabilize the developing country in terms of employment and income levels.
A developing country has several demographic characteristics too. For instance, such a nation suffers from population pressure as a result of high growth rate and a reduced death rate. An increased population growth rate is likely to lead to a strain in the basic requirements, education, and health facilities. Developing countries may equally engage in a constant fight against illness and malnutrition. The average life expectancy in the developing countries is 78 years. This has reduced to 66 years in the developing countries with a constant drop as the days go by.
In conclusion, a developing country faces countless challenges, which are no longer existent in the developed countries. High poverty levels, low income per capita, increased debts, poor health and lack of basic needs for its citizens characterize such nations.
Eckl, Julian and Ralph, Weber. ‘North–South? Pitfalls of dividing the world by words‘. Third World Quarterly 28(1): 3–23. 2007. Print.
Ross, Julia. Zoellick: The end of the Third World., 14 April. 2010. Web. 8 June, 2016. <http://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/zoellick-end-of-the-third-world>
Zafarullah, Habib and Huque, Ahmed. Managing Development in a Globalized World: Concepts, Processes, Institutions (Public Administration and Public Policy) 0th Edition. NY: CRC Press, 2012. Print.