Sample Human Resources Management Research Paper Summary on Training and Development

Training and Development

Modern day organizations aiming at improving effectiveness have recognized human intellectual Training and development as one of the keys to improved performance. As such, organizations arrange for the training of employees to improve working performance in line with organizational objectives. For instance Subway Restaurant requires the employees to be trained in some aspects of work procedure. This is a method frequently used for those not already employed. Entrants into the market are often trained during an orientation process to enter into an organization.

While many companies assume the need for training on the basis that potential employees have an employment history, this is a mistake that can result in conflicts and frequent misunderstandings among the employees and the management. The restaurant staff can be trained in specific aspects of operation such as change of shifts, food storage, hygienic storage of restaurant equipment and waste reduction. Training the employees at the restaurant will help increase efficiency through reduction of time wasted in follow up and reduced losses.

The expectancy theory can be applied by the restaurant’s management in improving the workers’ motivation and subsequently productivity. The theory postulates that people are motivated through what they expect. For instance, the restaurant may introduce an appreciation scheme where the workers w hose performance is exemplary are rewarded. This may encourage more workers to engage in more productive activity (Gagne & Deci, 2005). On the other hand, cognitive evaluation theory shows that good performance is linked to external factors such as supportive environment, effective rewards and others. As such, individuals are likely to stop positive performance if the motivational factor is eliminated.

There are various challenges that organizational performance faces in the restaurant. The management at the restaurant faces challenges such the lack of co-ordination between the employees, their knowledge areas and the representation of the knowledge to the customers. Other challenges include inconsistency in food quality which paints a negative image of the restaurant; difficulty in predicting the daily trends for customer assistance; and predicting employee state of mind to maintain their motivation.

The diversity of employees due to different cultural background and high employee turnover are also significant with regards to resources utilized in training and time consumed in training. Gap analysis can be used by the restaurant management to identify discrepancies between the organizational goals and the present level reached. In terms of efficiency, it is claimed that internal inefficiencies such as lack of communication and incompetence result in gaps. Furthermore, the external environment can also result in inefficiency.

Gap analysis and identification can help businesses to operate more efficiently through ensuring that the business stays on course. Additionally, gap identification helps organizations to understand their present positions and thus plan for growth. Gap identification can also help to forecast trends in the customer behavior and thus plan effectively for the coming trends. The identified gaps in the restaurant include the safety, the standards of health and hygiene in the restaurant and regulations set by the sanitation department.

In order to achieve the organizational objectives completely, the restaurant needs to invest in employee training. This has to begin with an identification of training needs. The training needs identified help in the development of a training curriculum which is followed by the management. For the Subway Restaurant, the training agenda will be the establishment of current performance to meet organizational values and culture. The training procedure will involve dissemination of theoretical knowledge during the introduction process and advancement into the practical sessions. The best strategy would help to improve service delivery hence attracting more customers (Cannon-Bowers te al., 1997).


Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Johnston, J. H., & Salas, E. (1997). How can you turn a team of experts into an expert team: Emerging training strategies. Naturalistic decision making, 359-370.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior26(4), 331-362.

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