Sample HR Management Research Paper on Employee Development and Performance

Employee Development and Performance

The first decade and a half of the 21st century have reiterated the importance of having an efficient human resource. As indicated by Dinkelacker and Garg (2010), currently the corporate environment continues to exhibit increased competition and consumer expectation in wake of increased globalization and advancement in technology. As a means to increase their competitive advantage, managers have been compelled to seek new strategies to improve their employees. It is for this reason that Farndale, Scullion, and Sparrow (2010), indicated that since the turn of the century training and development has become a vital part of the HR department. Nevertheless, the concept of improving employee performance through training and development is not straightforward particularly because there are several training models each with its own benefits and costs. In an environment of heightened competition particularly in the retail and service industry, there is a need for clarity and comprehension over the best possible training and development strategy for the organization as well as the outcomes.          

Employee training and development have been used over the recent past been used to increase workforce satisfaction and enjoyment. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the two processes are not the same. Employee training is the process of transferring information from one individual (expert) to another (trainee) through a variety of models. On the other hand, development is a continues process of aiding employees to grow.

Employee Training


Source Author

  1. As aforementioned training is a process that is based on the transfer of knowledge from an expert to a trainee in a number of steps as indicated.
  2. Assessing training needs. The first step in the training processes is identifying and evaluating the need for equipping staff members with a particular set of skills.
  3. Changing staff behavior. There is a need to align training goals and organizational objectives. As indicated by (cite), training programs ought to shift staff members mentality towards higher performance.
  4. Designing training. After identifying the needs that would lead to increased performance, the best training program is designed selecting the best model to transfer knowledge.
  5. Training delivery. After selecting the best training method, the next step is conducting the best process of delivering knowledge.
  6. Assessing training. After we complete the training, the last step is assessing its effectiveness. 

Employee Development

Employee development is a combined initiative of the worker as well as the establishment to promotion the existing skills as well as an individual’s knowledge. It is of utmost significance for workforces to keep themselves well-informed with the up-to-the-minute advances in the industry thus increasing competitive advantage and survivability.

Methods of training and Development

As above mentioned the concept of employee performance is not new; consequently, there are numerous ways of transferring knowledge from expert to trainee. Nevertheless, over the last decade three types of training methodologies have stood as the most effective namely On-th- job training, Coaching and mentoring as well as literature training    

On-The-Job Training

On-the-job training is a proactive method of teaching an individual in such as case an employee the skills, competence, as well as knowledge that is needed to perform a particular job within the workspace (Noe & Peacock, 2002). This training process is conducted within the work environment and not a simulator. Consequently, it uses the existing machines, policies, tools, as well as other production processes to teach as well as develop an employee’s aptitude practically. According to McNamara (2008), the objective of on-the-job training is giving an employee the exact impression of a task. For any management team, this process of training and development is efficient when effecting different operational strategies. Additionally, the process allows for easier and more frequent performance appraisal.     

Coaching and Mentoring

Another way of training of employees is coaching and mentoring which is considered an efficient capacity-building equipment when it comes to leadership development. As narrated by McNamara (2008), mentoring involves the use of models and techniques of questioning, listening, clarifying, as well as motivation. On the other hand, coaching uses the models of directing and hands-on teaching. As indicated by Noe and Peacock, (2002) traditionally, mentoring in the workplace is done by expected colleagues in support and development of less experienced staff members.  


Lectures usually take place in a classroom format. This model of training is informative and theoretical. The expert employee of management provide the less experienced or new employees with note that are bound to provide higher performance when followed. This methodology is however not suited for the retail industry. For the present case, the best On the Job training is the best from of training methodology. As indicated, it is the easiest for trainers to comprehend delivering high success rates. Additionally, it is the best training methodology that provides a clear view of performance management and performance appraisal    

Performance Management and Performance Appraisal

The most significant difference between performance management and performance appraisal is how they are both conducted. Performance management is an ongoing process that is constantly set to identify, manage, as well as develop the performance of the human resources on an organization to either meet or surpass pre-set goals. On the other hand, performance appraisal is a stage-based system that evaluates employee performance. According to Pichler (2012), performance management is based primarily on what the management team continually does to help their employees become increasingly better for the organizations greater good. This involved the development of strategies such as increased training, improving engagement and satisfaction, as well as re-structuring the working environment in order to tap to an employee’s potential. On the other hand, Pichler (2012), also indicates that is centered on analyzing the progress made by these strategies through the evaluation of an employee’s actual performance on a systematic basis.         

The second difference is based on ‘timelines’. Performance appraisal is done based on the past, meaning evaluation of an employee is done in the immediate past period. Conversely, performance management is focused on both the present and the future performances of an employee. As indicated by Daoanis (2012), performance management deals with real-time problems and solutions that aid in an organization’s performance through human resources development. Subsequently, this then means that performance management is influenced by the prevailing conditions an organization exists in while an appraisal is not. 

Another way to look at the dissimilarities between performance management and performance appraisal is that the latter is grounded upon an individual and how an employee performed in past (Pichler, 2012). In opposition, management performance is a process that proactively manages the company’s vision, mission, goals, objectives, and strategies with a grouped performance by each employee (Daoanis, 2012). In other words, employee performance is dependent on a group of individuals who make up success or failure of an organization, performance appraisal is a system that evaluates an individuals’ input in the said group.   

In summation, due to the profile of the business, the staff members will undergo an on-the-job training session that will be conducted for 12 weeks. After this, an appraisal will be done to analyze any progress made. Lastly, a similar practice will be conducted in order to maintain development which will translate to higher HR performance.


Daoanis, L. E. (2012). Performance Appraisal System: It’s Implication to Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 2(3), 55-62.

Dinkelacker, J., & Garg, P. (2010). Corporate source: Applying open source concepts to a corporate environment (position paper). 1st WS Open Source SE.

Farndale, E., Scullion, H., & Sparrow, P. (2010). The role of the corporate HR function in global talent management. Journal of world business, 45(2), 161-168.

McNamara, C. (2008). Employee training and development: Reasons and benefits. Authenticity Consulting, LLC.

Noe, R. A., & Peacock, M. (2002). Employee training and development. PDF

Pichler, S. (2012). The social context of performance appraisal and appraisal reactions: A meta‐analysis. Human Resource Management, 51(5), 709-732.

Vemić, J. (2007). Employee training and development and the learning organization. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Series: Economics and Organization, 4(2), 209-216.