Sample History Paper on September 11 Terror Attack

 

Question 1
The September 11 terrorist attack signified that the U.S.'s invulnerability was gone and
fundamentally changed the way it engaged with other countries. The new foreign policy entailed
a focus on the war on terror, specifically to reshape politics and governance in the Middle East.
A critical aspect of the foreign policy was the National Security Strategy, which outlined the
legal reasons for pre-emption according to international law whereby countries can defend
themselves in the face of imminent threat. The war on terror quickly started with the invasion of
Iraq following the inflated assessment of terror and the subsequent counterterrorism campaign.
Notably, the U.S. foreign policy discarded the need for consent from the international before it
would take military action on other nations. Some researchers have noted that the foreign policy
after the September 11 attack assumed strong unilateralist leanings imperialistic tendencies. 1
Therefore, the foreign policy after the Septemeber 11 th attack was preemptive, unilateral,and
imperialistic.
Question 2
The plight of Muslim – Americans after September 11 was similar to that of Japanese-
American and German- Americans during the Second World War. Following the attack on pearl
harbor in December 1941, Japanese Americans residing in the U.S and its territories were
interned in camps for the duration of the war. The prison camps were started following
presidential Executive Order 9066. The internment affected about 112,000 Americans of
Japanese extraction 2 . To a lesser extent, German- Americans residing along the East Coast were
also taken to prison camps. At the same time, the Nazi party leaders had their assets seized,
1 Carlos L. Yordan "The Imperial Turn: Analyzing Post-9/11 American Foreign Policy Through the Prism of 1898."
Revista de Historia Actual 4, no. 4 (2006), 33.
2 Archives. "Japanese-American Internment During World War II." National Archives. Last modified, March 17,
2020. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation.

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charged for embezzlements, and deported to Germany. 3 Similarly, Muslim – Americans faced
discrimination after September 11, described as Islamophobia, that was characterized by
exaggerated hostility, fear, and hostility towards Muslims and was perpetuated by negative
adverse stereotypes that resulted in bias, marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination of
Muslims from civic, social and political life.
Question 3
The U.S Patriotic Act violates civil liberties. The legislation enhanced the government's
power to spy on citizens while significantly reducing the checks and balances on such powers,
including public accountability and judicial oversight. The spying entails wiretaps and
surveillance by law enforcement as they investigate terror crimes. The law is considered to be
causing the highest threat to privacy, democratic traditions, and civil liberties in U.S. history 4 .
While it as meant to combat terrorism, it also infringes on the right of American citizens,
including the Fourth Amendment, which prohibits unreasonable and arbitrary searches and
seizures.

3 Alan Taylor. "American Nazis in the 1930s—The German American Bund." The Atlantic. Last modified June 5,
2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/06/american-nazis-in-the-1930sthe-german-american-bund/529185/.
4. Christopher P. Raab "Fighting Terrorism In An Electronic Age: Does The Patriot Act Unduly Compromise Our
Civil Liberties?" Duke Law & Technology Review 2 (2006).

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Bibliography

Archives. "Japanese-American Internment During World War II." National Archives. Last
modified, March 17, 2020. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-
relocation.

Raab, Christopher P. "Fighting Terrorism In An Electronic Age: Does The Patriot Act Unduly
Compromise Our Civil Liberties?" Duke Law & Technology Review 2 (2006).

Taylor, Alan. "American Nazis in the 1930s—The German American Bund." The Atlantic. Last
modified June 5, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/06/american-nazis-in-
the-1930sthe-german-american-bund/529185/.

Yordan, Carlos L. "The Imperial Turn: Analyzing Post-9/11 American Foreign Policy Through
the Prism of 1898." Revista de Historia Actual 4, no. 4 (2006), 27-44.