The first and second world wars had a great leadership impact among countries all over the world. The First World War saw the rise of authoritarian leaders such as Hitler and Mussolini. Germany was among the first elite counties in Europe to initiate Nazism across Europe. Hitler borrowed political ideologies from Mussolini who led the Roman Empire with fascist views. Both leaders had nationalist interests which drifted them apart as potential European friends with immense political power. Hitler and Mussolini had similar leadership ideologies even though the two rulers depicted numerous differences.
Hitler had views founded on Nazism ideologies. Nazism was a form of nationalism in which European powers wanted to consolidate power within their political jurisdiction. Hitler led the Germans with authoritarian views which attracted animosity from other races. For instance, anti-Semitic views saw the execution of more than five million Jews. It is during this period that Hitler ensured that the Germans had a social advantage over other races by ethnic cleansing of the Jewish people (Goeschel 8). Hitler led Germany with aggression by invading neighboring territories such as Poland. Mussolini was very skeptical of initiating military aggression against neighboring countries. Hitler’s views, however, created animosity among Germans who grew impatient of authoritarianism. Germany had become a dangerous region to stage a political ideology which contradicted Hitler’s views. It was considered treasonous for any individual who went against Hitler’s wishes. Political executions were common in Germany and were important in consolidating power around Hitler as the face of Nazism.
Mussolini was considered a great Italian leader who promoted nationalist ideas using fascism. Fascism describes authoritarian leadership which concentrates power around a certain category of right-wing individuals. Mussolini had inherited a successful Roman Empire from previous leaders. It was his desire to expand Italian political territories by conquering other countries. For instance, Mussolini used fascist ideologies to stage a war against Ethiopia during colonization in Africa (Ceci et al. 804). However, due to lack of efficient understanding with Hitler, Mussolini was defeated in the famous Battle of Adowa. Ethiopians defended their territory and chased Italians from all corners of invasion. Mussolini, however, differed with Hitler on numerous occasions during their political partnership. For instance, Hitler invaded Poland even after Mussolini advised Germany not to proceed with the invasion.
There is imminent evidence of Hitler and Mussolini views in some modern countries in Europe. Hitler’s ideologies are present in some Eastern European countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Austria. The influence of Nazism in these countries has grown to alarming levels which promote racism. For instance, Euro 2012 (a continental football tournament in Europe) depicted numerous instances of racism. It is during this time that people from Poland discriminated against visiting fans of other countries leading to violence in and around football stadiums (Goeschel 10). Similarly, Hitler’s views are present in Hungarian leadership in which immigration has been reduced to zero levels. People from other races are barred from seeking political or economic asylum in Hungary. This country has strict border rules and patrols which arrest any invaders in its country. Mussolini’s views are also present in a number of countries. For instance, Belgium is a country which values diplomatic ties with other Allies across Europe just like Italy did under Mussolini. Political partnerships were important in coordinating military activities across different countries.
Hitler and Mussolini wanted Italy and Germany to prosper using the same framework of political leadership. Hitler concentrated his powers on Nazism whereas Mussolini led Italy using fascist ideologies. In 1945, both leaders were defeated by Allies who ended the Second World War. Hitler was responsible for numerous deaths that were associated with views of Nazism. Germany lost many people leading to a damaged economy. Mussolini was eventually captured and executed by Allies who introduced democratic leadership in Italy after the Second World War.
Ceci, L., Domenico, R., Perin, R., Ventresca, R. A., & Kertzer, D. I. (2016). The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe by David I. Kertzer. The Catholic Historical Review, 102(4), 799-813.
Goeschel, Christian. “Biography, political leadership, and foreign policy reconsidered: the cases of Mussolini and Hitler.” European Review of International Studies 4.2+ 3 (2017): 5-19.