How did the mandated structure (generally) shape the map of the Middle East?
The mandate of Palestine partitioned lands that previously belonged to the Ottoman empire and explained the proposed spheres of influence to Britain and France wanted after world war one. The mandate permitted the French to control Syria and northern Syria, Lebanon, Mesopotamia and Turkish Cilicia (paramere, slide 5). The Palestine mandate also gave British control over Palestine, Jordan and Jordan valley, Arabia and areas around the Persian Gulf and Baghdad. Russia controlled the Turkish Armenia and northern Kurdistan.
What were the problems that the mandate of Palestine created and what were the solutions to those problems? Were those solutions effective at solving the conflicts?
The mandate of Palestine created a conflict between the Arabs and the Jews. The Arabs resented the Jews for receiving Palestine (paramere, slide 18). The conflict was fueled by religious fervour as there emerged a religious clash between Judaism and Islam. The Jews still believed that the Palestine land belonged to them because of the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Therefore, some Jews migrated from Britain and other areas in Western Europe to Palestine (paramere, 21). The Arabs did not accept the Jews immigrants into Palestine and this created war.
The British decided to come up with solutions following the hostilities between the Jews and Arabs (paramere, slide 22). The British decided to uphold their promise from Balfour declaration and instead created a state homeland for the Jews.
How did the German create a systematic method to engage in the “final solution?”
German together with their agents developed ghettos, shipment camps, and enforced labour campsites for the Jewish throughout the war. The German leaders as well developed several enforced-labour equally in the German Reich and territories for the non-Jews. Later on, militarized battalions ordered the police officials to move behind the German lines and conduct killing of the Jews (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, paragraph 8). German SS and police units in support by the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS also murdered more than a million Jews.
How did the creation of the state of Israel positively impact some while negatively impact others?
Creation of Israel impacted positively on Israel, Egypt and Jordan. Israel achieved territory initially given to Palestinian Arabs under the United Nations. Egypt reserved control over Gaza strip whereas Jordan, on the other hand, maintained the power over the west bank. The united resolution during the creation of Israel did not consider the armistice negotiations (American historians 1, para 5). The lack of US involvement impacted negatively on the Middle East leaving it unstable.
How does the Suez crisis illustrate American predominance in the Middle East? How did the US displace the old imperial powers?
British declared Egypt a protectorate and therefore sent their own forces to protect the canal. The British defence forces were as well sent to Sinai desert to prevent any further attempt attack by Turkey. British also granted Egypt nominal independence (Milner, para 6). However, after the independence, the British continued protecting the Suez Canal.
The United Nations opinion incorporation with the danger of Soviet intermediation forced Britain, Israel, and France to withdraw their defence forces from Egypt (Milner, para 8). United Nations sent their peacekeeping forces to supervise the ceasefire and maintain order.
What were the short-term implications of the 6-day war for Nasser and Egypt?
The general secretary of the United Nations Emergency Force stated that he would have to withdraw UNEF from all its stations. The general secretary statement was a great threat to Nasser politics. Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel shipping (American historians 2, para 6). The US president Dwight stated that the closure of the straits would result to Egypt attack.
What were the long-term implications for the Middle East and its US relations?
The Middle East and U.S relations led to the recognition of national rights. The relationship as well ensured progress in finding a solution to refugee obstacles, freedom of acquitted maritime route, reduction of the arms battle, and respect for political liberation and regional reliability (American historians 2, para 9).
United States Holocaust memorial museum. “Introduction to the Holocaust.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143
American historians (1). “The Arab-Israeli War of 1948.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 2016, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/arab-israeli-war
American historians (2). “The 1967 Arab-Israeli War.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 2017, https://.history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/arab-israeli-war-1967.
Milner, Laurie. “History – British History in Depth: The Suez Crisis.” BBC, BBC, 3 Mar. 2011, www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml.
paramere, Janna. “The Mandate System of the Middle East.” Prezi.com, Prezi, 2013, https://prezi.com/oeexbabu5x15/the-mandate-system-of-the-middle-east/#_=_.