Sample History Coursework Paper on Civil Rights Advances and Struggles

Civil Rights Advances and Struggles

Civil rights movements and continued struggle for social and racial justice for African Americans peaked in the 1950s and 1960s. The fight for justice ended slavery within the U.S but did not end discrimination. To achieve equality in the U.S., African Americans with the help of the Whites, started civil right movements to fight for their rights. Two key events, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Birmingham Campaign, occurred during this era to bring social change across the country.

Montgomery Bus Boycott occurred in 1955 when African Americans decided to engage in a citywide bus boycott to fight racial segregation that had prone the public transportation system. The citywide boycott continued for 381 days, and it adversely affected the public transportation system across the city (Balcı & Balcı, 2011). In 1956, the court ruled that racial segregation in the public transportation system was unconstitutional, and any individual engaged in such an act would be held accountable by law.

Another key event that occurred during the civil right movements is the Birmingham Campaign. The campaign was established to end discriminatory economic policies that had been put against African Americans, for instance, some businesses were to only hire Whites and maintained segregation rooms (Mahn, 2014). African Americans engaged in protests across Birmingham City, and the campaign achieved success when businesses hired everyone irrespective of their race.

The two key events are of historical significance as they brought an end to racial segregation and the hostile environment the Whites had established for African Americans. Consequently, African Americans are entitled to equality across the U.S. Currently, they enjoy the right to work with any institution or business and have the rights to access all areas within the country.


Balcı, F., & Balcı, H. (2011). Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott. Journal of Human Sciences8(2), 314-327. Retrieved from

Mahn, L. A. (2014). Morality and Nonviolent Protest: The Birmingham Campaign. Retrieved from