Health Promotion in Community Health Nursing
Nurses are fundamental professionals who are pillars in health promotion programs. Achieving quality of care is necessary to lower mortality and morbidity rates (Jackson, 2022). The Ottawa Charter initiated Health promotion that aims at upgrading health at the community level. It is also critical is shortening hospitalization and lowering the hospital bills that usually have a significant impact on the clients. Patient-centered practice is emphasized in nursing scope considering healthy policies, strengthening the community action, and establishing dependable healthy environments. Nurses educate their clients on the healthy lifestyles that they should practice and ensure that chronic illnesses such as Diabetes, Hypertension, Cancer, and Obesity are prevented. Health promotion utilizes enabling, intervening, and advocating for quality health care (Otto, Bischoff & Wollesen, 2019). Principles used in the health promotion strategy are autonomy, health maximization, beneficence, and justice. Interprofessional cooperation among nurses and other health care providers is vital in achieving a high level of wellness within the community. Developing health promotion, planning and implementation of the seminar, and diverse nurse roles within the different community groups are collaborative considerations to ensure quality healthcare achievement.
Developing Health Promotion Plan
The primary goal in health promotion is simply the enlightenment of the community members to understand its contribution and control over their health at the individual level. Significant risks that are the etiology of common illnesses are usually discussed, and the community is made aware of the possible preventive measures, which is generally a primary prevention approach. Nurses prioritize the community’s well-being and aim at collaborating with their members to achieve their goals (Otto, Bischoff & Wollesen, 2019). Standard preventive measures that the nurses emphasize as health promotion strategies include physical exercises, proper and well-balanced diet, and vaccinations. Health services are made available to the community’s population, ensuring equity, social justice, and utilization of the local resources at the community level to attain wellness.
Empowering people to make correct choices is based on the community’s primary health concern. In areas where diet-related diseases such as marasmus or malnutrition are common, the nurses should focus on the chief etiology of the illnesses and guide the community on the need to upgrade their nutrition. Effective shifts in health should be offered at primary, secondary, or tertiary levels (Otto, Bischoff & Wollesen, 2019). Health promotion is intertwined within the social determinants, and planning should be centered on the community’s practices.
Scope of Practice
Health promotion involves discouragement of unhealthy risky behaviors that will lead to diseases. It advocates and addresses the possible nursing interventions that should be emphasized to achieve quality health by eradicating drug and substance abuse, physical inactivity, and polypharmacy that is lethal to the community’s health. Nurses encourage the non-pharmacological approach when dealing with minor cases, and the options include acupuncture and psychological interventions (Kurnia, Amatayakul & Karuncharernpanit, 2017). The process enables the nurses to efficiently tackle the nutritional disequilibrium and ensure that the community consumes natural foods with quality dietary combinations that are safe for their health. Nurses provide that the population is educated on the nutritional requirements based on the components, quantity, and proportions for better health.
Health promotion involves enhancing mental health, which is emphasized on intersectoral collaboration. Necessary interventions are adhered to based on the professional nursing practice, which consists in constructing a nurse-patient relationship, providing proper health care, and evaluating progress. Promoting a safe sexual life is necessary at the community level; elaborating on the family planning services and emphasizing healthy reproductive living is necessary (Jackson, 2022). Tackling domestic violence is emphasized when nurses empower the community through preventive strategies and possible treatment regimens to achieve wellness.
Health promotion employs various mechanisms to strengthen its ability to achieve wellness in community settings. Individuals within the community are affected by a spectrum of health challenges, and therefore multisector partnerships are considered. Health promotion aims at upgrading the health status of the general population in the community, and therefore it is necessary to view all the possible health challenges. Community nurses should promote health in the community through allocating equal emphasis on each sector (Kurnia, Amatayakul & Karuncharernpanit, 2017). Health promotion is achieved through educational strategies and thoughtful communication approaches—the community nurse targets shifting the members’ lifestyles that should remain healthy. For example, obese individuals require regular exercise patterns and nutritional monitoring.
The nurses are responsible for mobilizing the community to adhere to specific behaviors that will significantly contribute to health. The environment is a critical factor in health promotion based on the interactions, culture, geographical, and climate factors that shape community members’ living. Reorienting health services is essential during health promotion, and therefore it is the responsibility of the health practitioners to practice healthy behaviors they emphasize on the public (Jackson, 2022). Care models are linked with community-dominated behaviors that determine the possible options for health promotion. The public is educated on the risks associated with unhealthy practices and possible interventions implemented by the community nurses whose success depends on the community’s support.
Constructing Health Promotion Program and Models
Health Promotion Model
Different health promotion models are employed, which the community nurses utilize to achieve wellness at the community level. Health Promotion Model is categorized based on its amplification that involves individuals’ experiences and relations on health (Kurnia, Amatayakul & Karuncharernpanit, 2017). This theory emphasizes the lifestyles, psychology, and culture that will determine the possible decisions made by the community. Child obesity involves physical inactiveness and high cholesterol consumption. Culture, where alcohol and smoking are prohibited, is likely associated with better health levels, and therefore nurses should be aware of the community’s background. Some communities are less conversant with vegetable taking, which is associated with obesity within the population.
Health Belief Model
Health is affected by individual beliefs, and therefore community nurses consider this model as they plan their goals for health promotion. The community usually has different perceptions of the outlined medical interventions. For instance, encouraging children to engage in active activities can be amplified by the community’s belief that children are young and energized; therefore, the intervention is supported. However, suppose some foods such as junk foods are restricted for children. In that case, the family could oppose the intervention since it beliefs that it is healthy, cultural, and a reward mechanism for learning. The community nurses should address the opinions on healthcare by basing their arguments on scientific evidence (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Health professionals and nurses should appreciate and respect the community’s beliefs to target the health promotion strategy.
Diffusion of Innovation Theory
The theory is concentrated on the dissemination of health behavior that has been encouraged by the community nurses. The professional is concerned about how quickly the community will adjust to the new healthy behavior. In the case of obesity, the nurse should plan the adoption technique for new behavior that will lower the child’s body cholesterol levels. The community is educated on the benefits of raising children in safe ways and reducing the causes of obesity. Social systems, communication skills, and time appropriateness determine the possibility of adjusting to better healthy behaviors (Mohammadi, Poursaberi & Salahshoor, 2018). The community nurse should employ the most appropriate methods to achieve the behavioral shift within the shortest period, involving close monitoring of their clients.
When the community nurse clarifies the possible nursing interventions to the obese patient, it usually takes some time to initiate the behavioral change. The nurse educates the community on the possible solutions that will prevent obesity. It involves adjusting their health knowledge, culture and balancing between the risks and benefits (Karami Daranjani, Panah & Kharazmi, 2017). Precontemplation is the initial phase in which obese children are aware of their medical condition, possible treatment, and prevention strategies but unconvinced on the nursing interventions presented. Contemplation is the next stage which involves planning to act on the provided interventions. The preparation stage consists of a course of action with emphasis on the goals stated by the community nurse. The client takes effort and initiates a routine on the plan or maintains the new behavior. Termination marks the evaluation of the process, and the patient is confirmed to have fully adjusted to the new behavior.
Social Cognitive Theory
Community nurses rely on this theory for it clarifies the influence of individuals’ behaviors, environment, and expectations within the community members. The idea is widely used in facilitating behavioral changes through reinforcements and various components such as self-efficacy. Parents are obliged to control the health patterns of their children by educating and guiding them on healthy practices. Self-control is emphasized in behavioral shifts, and the individuals’ capability is prioritized (Usher & Schunk, 2018). Obesity in children can be prevented through reinforcements and observation learning strategies. Expectations for the correct behavior should be outlined to motivate the shifts. Environmental settings are a prominent pillar within this theory that determines whether the changes will be achieved. Community nurse has the duty of ensuring that the community’s environment is friendly for behavior modifications.
Nurses utilize various approaches to achieving health promotion, including behavioral change, education, medical and community shifts in their cultural practices and perceptions. Nurses should adhere to their scope of practice and reflect on the different health models in their nursing practice.
Jackson, A. (2022). The principles of health promotion. Health Promotion for Nursing Associates, 5.
Karami Daranjani, S., Panah, Y., & Kharazmi, E. (2017). The effect of health education program based on Transtheoretical model on the promotion of physical activity among children of patients with hypertension and diabetes. J Health, 8(4), 394-407.
Kurnia, A. D., Amatayakul, A., & Karuncharernpanit, S. (2017). Predictors of diabetes self-management among people with type 2 diabetes in Indonesia: Application theory of the health promotion model. International journal of nursing sciences, 4(3), 260-265.
Mohammadi, M. M., Poursaberi, R., & Salahshoor, M. R. (2018). Evaluating the adoption of evidence-based practice using Rogers’s diffusion of innovation theory: a model testing study. Health promotion perspectives, 8(1), 25.
Otto, A. K., Bischoff, L. L., & Wollesen, B. (2019). Work-Related burdens and requirements for health promotion programs for nursing staff in different care settings: a cross-sectional study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(19), 3586.
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.
Usher, E. L., & Schunk, D. H. (2018). The social cognitive theoretical perspective of self-regulation.
Health Promotion in Childhood Obesity in Community Nursing
Overweight and obese children have continued to drastically increase in the U.S.A in recent years (Tsai et al., 2017). It is alarming that some parents are not aware that their children are obese, and they remain unknown to the potential health interventions. Community health nurses are critical health professionals who ensure that Obesity and overweight in children are prevented. Presenting the factual information regarding the patient might be uncomfortable to the nurse. However, the professional should prioritize their duties, especially being an advocate, and ensure that they provide the possible interventions. Nurses find it hard to educate parents about their children’s obese condition since some guardians or parents have the same conditions, and it appears as if they are criticizing the same parents. Community nurses are responsible for promoting health among the pediatric population and should construct nursing care plans for their clients. The nurses require to collaborate with the family of the affected children for better outcomes (Tsai et al., 2017). The family needs to employ specific interventions that the nurse instructs the parents in preventing or managing Obesity for obese children. Health promotion for the population includes healthy lifestyles, supportive parenting, behavioral modifications, screening and early detection, motivational interviewing, and weight loss programs.
Community nurses focus on establishing healthier food choices in families that will prevent the development of childhood obesity. The nurse educates the parents on the nutritious diets children should be provided with for healthy growth and development. Community nurses emphasize maximum nutrition involving low-sugar cereals, fruits, fresh vegetables, and low-cholesterol foodstuffs where polyunsaturated fats lower the risk of the condition. Children should avoid juices with vast amounts of calories and plan on snack consumption to prevent overfeeding the population. Community Nurses should educate parents on using the Food Guide Pyramid to monitor the healthy food portions for their children. Community nurses reveal to the parents the management of food intake for their children and close monitoring of their weight and average food they take per meal (Mageloff, 2019).
Regular physical exercises are very critical to growing children. Such activities include cycling, nature walks with their parents, swimming, and jumping in puddles. Parents should reduce the amount of time their children watch television programs and other sedentary activities such as sleeping when off-school. Community nurses should elaborate on the parents’ available healthy activities that they will engage their children in. Parents should always collaborate with the nurses, follow keenly on the health education, and question the nurses for clarifications (Tsai et al., 2017). Healthy lifestyles are a chief health promotion strategy in childhood obesity utilized by community nurses and is a brilliant remedy.
Parents are critical stakeholders in achieving health for their children. They are their primary providers, monitor their behaviors, and spend more time with them. Nurses should emphasize supportive parenting to facilitate the program. Parents are paramount in establishing a healthy home where they are supposed to determine and model healthy behaviors among their children (Mageloff, 2019). Community Nurses clarify that parents are responsible in the different stages of development for the children. During gestation and infancy, community nurses should screen pregnant mothers on diabetes and its management to avoid developing metabolic abnormalities among the children. Nurses should educate the lactating mothers on the average breastfeeding or bottle-feeding episodes. The formulas should not be concentrated with energy and nutrients that would affect the infant’s satiety in the future and contribute to overweight.
Toddlers and Preschool children have taste predispositions that nurses inform the parents to be careful with, such as energy-dense food. Fortunately, community nurses employ exposure and repeated experiences to shape healthy meals for children where parents are indirectly involved. Parental control attempts model their children’s demand for various meals. Community nurses encourage the parents to be involved in physical activities that will motivate their children to participate, especially in their early childhood (Helseth et al., 2017). Childhood obesity will be avoided when parents are role models in enjoying exercises which their children will learn. Community Health Nurses (CHN) ensure that parents know the kind of meals to feed their children at specific developmental stages; parents should increase energy-rich meals in the adolescent stage. CHN should encourage parents to avoid biases toward their children, and stigmatization within the population should be avoided.
Constructing behavioral interventions for children is critical for healthy children’s growth. Certain behaviors are good and prevent Obesity and overweight in children. Classical conditioning is the prioritized principle that includes cues in childhood to prevent Obesity. Cognitive therapy is intertwined with the behavior shifts whereby children’s expressions are responded to with respect (Whitehead et al., 2021). For example, a child might have negative thoughts when they take little food when their parents emphasize more food. CHN utilizes this goal-oriented intervention. It uses the SMART approach for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound. Parents should, for an instant, clarify the management strategies for Obesity in their children and provide preventive measures.
The modifications are process-oriented since it is impossible to change to new behavior abruptly. Therefore the population involved is given time to adjust to healthy behaviors to reduce obesity cases. CHN can help parents identify the possible causes of Obesity in their children based on the nursing diagnosis. For example, behavior shift strategies are employed when the nurse finds out that overeating or overeating are the etiological factors for childhood obesity. Individuals are motivated to self-monitor their risks for Obesity and get attached to meal replacements (Tsai et al., 2017). The community usually views the obese as lazy, unattractive, and awkward, which CHN should dismiss and encourage the parents to improve the wellness of their obese children.
Screening and Early Detection
Basal Metabolic Index is the recommended test for childhood obesity. , children above six years are supposed to be screened. The BMI calculation requires the weight and height for the screening, which has an unspecific procedure duration. CHN should calculate the BMI for the children and determine their health status that will assist in early interventions employment (Mageloff, 2019). The pediatric population should be put under therapies for weight loss to avoid other related complications in the future. Cardiovascular disorders such as Deep vein thrombosis and chronic conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus results from long-term Obesity. Timely screening children on their BMI is critical in adjusting their behavior and encouraging healthy practices.
Clinical decisions are made based on the early detection of childhood obesity, and interventions will be constructed to ensure good health achievement. Children who are obese are associated with bullying based on their body sizes and shapes; this negatively affects their psychology and result in low self-esteem and poor grades in school. Early detection is essential since childhood obesity is directly associated with adult obesity. Screening is usually conducted when children visit healthcare facilities for immunization or other health services (Helseth et al., 2017). CHN should employ nursing interventions that will contribute to achieving an average healthy weight. There are racial or genetic differences in Obesity that CHN should prioritize for children who are obese.
Medications and Weight Loss Programs
Children who have been at high risk of Obesity in the U.S.A require weight loss programs adherence. Unhealthy weight is associated with social isolation and depression and can further affect the child’s health (Whitehead et al., 2021). The program encourages children to eat foods rich in whole grains and lean proteins. Children should be practiced the ”eat rainbow” approach where half their plate is fruits or vegetables. Cardiovascular fitness is emphasized in this approach and usually involves allowing children to move more. Children who exercise often are stress-free, and their cognitive functioning is excellent. Children are associated with the consumption of more sugars, and therefore the weight loss program should involve cutting down sugars in their diets through the low caloric intake (Tsai et al., 2017). Flavored milk and juice drinks should be avoided. Reducing screen time is part of the weight loss program, and the parents are responsible for turning screens off before bedtimes and avoiding screen watching during meals. The program’s goals should be specific and achievable. Good sleep is necessary for the prevention or treatment of Obesity. Few sleep hours should be avoided since they are associated with inactiveness and overeating.
Treatment for Obesity depends on the child’s age and underlying medical conditions. In a case where Obesity is impossible to be treated with behavioral modifications, weight-loss surgery and medications are the other options. Children over two years who are overweight should adhere to the weight-loss program where they are supposed to maintain or reduce their weight as they grow. When calculated with added height inches, the constant or dropped weight will reduce BMI (Helseth et al., 2017). Children should aim at weight loss of about one pound per month, which is achieved through healthy diets. In severe Obesity, surgery is done to lower the BMI, although it should be supplemented with the primary interventions; physical activity engagement and more nutritional food selections.
Childhood obesity should be prevented for good health. Nurses are critical healthcare providers who have the duty of educating the parents on the appropriate diets, the need for physical activity, and monitoring the food proportions of their children.
Helseth, S., Riiser, K., Holmberg Fagerlund, B., Misvær, N., & Glavin, K. (2017). Implementing guidelines for preventing, identifying, and treating adolescent overweight and obesity—School nurses’ perceptions of the challenges involved. Journal of clinical nursing, 26(23-24), 4716-4725.
Mageloff, G. N. (2019). The Effect of Nursing Interventions and Health Promotion on Childhood Obesity: A Literature Review.
Tsai, T. I., Luck, L., Jefferies, D., & Wilkes, L. (2017). Exploring nurses’ knowledge and attitudes about children who are overweight/obese: A review of the literature. Clinical Nursing Studies, 50-56.
Whitehead, L., Kabdebo, I., Dunham, M., Quinn, R., Hummelshoj, J., George, C., & Denney‐Wilson, E. (2021). The effectiveness of nurse‐led interventions to prevent childhood and adolescent overweight and Obesity: A systematic review of randomized trials. Journal of Advanced Nursing.
Planning and Implementing a Seminar or Workshop for Health Promotion
The nursing process is dynamic and globally employed by nurses in their scope of practice. The uniformity of the nursing process is dependable in improving patient management within healthcare settings (Whitehead, 2018). Nurses utilize the nursing process to construct a care plan that keeps track of the clients’ progress and offers the necessary nursing interventions. The process is employed in health promotion to achieve the highest level of wellness among the patients. It is the responsibility of the nurses to adhere to the process for better nursing services. Five steps make up the nursing process; Assessment, Nursing diagnosis, planning, Implementation and evaluation. During the assessment, the nurses collect both subjective and objective data utilized to generate the nursing diagnosis. The nursing diagnosis is based on the patient’s current situation, where the client is viewed from a holistic perspective. The diagnosis involves the problem related to a particular etiology as manifested by a specific distinguishing characteristic (Toney-Butler & Thayer, 2020). Planning and Implementation will be employed in constructing a health promotion seminar.
Managing the Process
Health promotion should be well managed, and this involves the key stakeholders, the community nurses, and the community members. There is allocation of the right resources to facilitate the program during the Implementation. Quantitative and qualitative information regarding D.M. in the population will be collected, analyzed, and a dependable decision will be constructed based on the findings. Adequate time is allocated for conducting the process, and the community nurses are at the frontline of ensuring that the process is successful (Choi & Yoo, 2021). The community nurse manages health promotion, highlighting the expected health outcomes within the population. A couple of medical interventions are constructed based on the nursing considerations and require the client to adhere for efficiency. Therapeutic interactions are emphasized for quality health for the targeted population.
The phase is involved with decision-making and problem solving that will be vital in setting up the seminar for health promotion within the community. The issue to be addressed is Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.) in the community that has increased in mortality rates in the U.S.A. in recent years. The high number of D.M. requires good management that will be explored in the planning phase of nursing practice.
D.M. is a chronic illness where the body cannot regulate the blood sugar levels within the body. The health condition is common in older patients and is usually associated with comorbidities (Teston et al., 2018). Planning for the seminar will involve considering the target population that will participate, which will affect older individuals since they are at a higher risk of becoming diabetic. Therefore, the language used during the seminar will be simple, and the health promotion program will take a short time, around one hour for three days. This is because the engaged population is old individuals whose physiological ability has decreased. The C.H.N. should use an open forum approach and ask questions to involve the audience in the seminar actively. Different critical topics within the D.M. will be discussed, including the cause, management, and blood sugar monitoring techniques. Demonstrations will be used, and brochures with detailed information on D.M. will be distributed to the audience to enable the elderly to refer later since they are associated with amnesia. In the seminar, restoring electrolyte balance and acid-base balance will be prioritized too.
At the end of the seminar, various goals should be attained. The audience is expected to acquire well-detailed information regarding the cause of Diabetes Mellitus, genetic factors, and lifestyle contributions. The population should be aware of possible preventive measures, including healthy nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, and managing their blood sugar levels. Types of diabetes, type I, type II, gestational, and prediabetes, should be informed to the public (Teston et al., 2018). Delayed diagnosis of diabetes is sometimes fatal. Therefore, the audience should be educated and understand the symptoms, including blurred vision, polyuria, increased thirst, unexpected weight loss, and numbness in the hands.
The population should be informed on the associated complications of D.M., including dementia, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Patients with wounds will be facilitated to enhance wound healing, and homeostasis will be achieved (Teston et al., 2018). The audience in the seminar should at least understand the two standard blood glucose tests; fasting plasma glucose level done after eight hours of fasting and the random plasma glucose test. Furthermore, the audience should use the blood glucose meter to check on their blood sugar levels. The public should be aware of the possible treatment options such as glinides, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and thiazolidinediones.
Selecting Nursing Interventions
The nurses’ interventions will be clarified in the seminar for blood sugar management and prevention, especially for the old population. The audience will be educated on home glucose monitoring techniques, and the patient will be educated on how to manage shifts in their blood sugar levels. The seminar should emphasize the foods that the glycemic patients should consume, including low glycemic index and those with a high fever. The nurse should review factors contributing to glucose instability for the population. For individuals where missing meals or infections lead to blood glucose fluctuation, the nurses should provide remedies for the predisposing factors. C.H.N. should emphasize to the clients to ensure their insulin medications are viable and educate the patients on the working mechanism of the antidiabetic drugs. The Community Health Nurse should instruct the population on the delivery method of insulin injections and time for administration (Gorina, Limonero & Alvarez, 2018). The nurse ensures the injection sites periodically to ensure the clients use the right places.
Reassessment of the Seminar’s Audience
Before implementing the nursing interventions, the C.H.N. reassesses the need for health promotion on D.M. to the senior population in the planned seminar. There could be shifts and better; therefore, the nurse who leads the workshop might be forced to adjust some information. If there are interventions are valid, and the target population has no changes in their health concerns, the nurse proceeds with the delivery of the health education to the public (Gorina, Limonero & Alvarez, 2018). C.H.N. reviews expected outcomes and focus on improving health quality in the most significant fraction of the audience. The plan adheres as stipulated in the initial stages.
Determining Community Health Nurse Collaboration
Nurses should consider if they require assistance and involve some of their colleagues, especially in this approach. During the seminar, it will be prudent to have other C.H.N.s who can tackle audience questions, providing elaborations on appropriate blood sugar management to the public. During the Implementation, C.H.N.s collaborated to ensure the seminar goals were achieved and detect any breaches in the health promotion since one man is an island (Whitehead, 2018). Collaboration empowers the nurses and prevents errors and inefficiencies for the workshop.
Implementing the Interventions
Community health nurses during the seminar will elaborate on their nursing interventions. Nurses utilize the possible resources of printed brochures to emphasize their health message to the target population (Toney-Butler & Unison-Pace, 2018). During the seminar, demonstrations are done on how to use the glucometer. The nurses physically show a subcutaneous injection on the possible insulin injection sites at the anterior or posterior aspects of buttocks, abdomen, thighs, and upper arm. The C.H.N. educates the population on their nutritional requirements, need for physical activities, and elaborates on possible health outcomes. The audience will be asked questions related to the presented health promotion message delivered that will be used to analyze the program’s success rate.
The audience will be provided time to ask questions for clarifications, and the seminar will take place on the stipulated forty-five minutes for three days. Community Health Nurse provides preventive measures such as advising the old population to avoid alcohol consumption and quit smoking associated with the chronic illness. Community Health Nurse will supervise the delegated care and health promotion goals (Toney-Butler & Unison-Pace, 2018). The nursing activities are documented in the nursing notes, and the nurses evaluate the program to terminate or revise it based on the outcomes.
Planning and Implementation encompass the targets for the nursing interventions. Evaluation is done to terminate when objectives are achieved or revise the process if goals aren’t met. Community Health Nurses should follow the nursing process for the effectiveness of the planned seminar. The professionals should set priorities and target positive outcomes.
Choi, E., & Yoo, K. H. (2021). The influence of social support and health promotion behaviors on nursing work performance among nurses. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education, 27(3), 333-341.
Gorina, M., Limonero, J. T., & Alvarez, M. (2018). Effectiveness of primary healthcare educational interventions undertaken by nurses to improve chronic disease management in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 86, 139-150.
Teston, E. F., Spigolon, D. N., Maran, E., Santos, A. D. L., Matsuda, L. M., & Marcon, S. S. (2018). Nurses’ perspective on health education in Diabetes Mellitus Care. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 71, 2735-2742.
Toney-Butler, T. J., & Thayer, J. M. (2020). Nursing process. Stat Pearls [Internet].
Toney-Butler, T. J., & Unison-Pace, W. J. (2018). Nursing admission assessment and examination.
Whitehead, D. (2018). Exploring health promotion and health education in nursing. Nurs Stand, 33(8), 38-44.
Application of Nursing Practice in Health Promotion at Different Levels
The Individual and Family
Nurses play a significant role in health promotion by utilizing evidence-based research to achieve high levels of wellness. The nurses are the catalysts through educating individual patients on the risky behaviors to avoid. A nurse assists individual patients on medications, especially semi-conscious and unconscious patients. It is the backbone of the nursing profession to offer client-centered care. Nurses educate the individual and the family on the interventions that will prevent obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or obesity. Nurses usually consider family as a pillar in achieving health by including them in the treatment process (Farasat Kish et al., 2017). Nurses ensure proper ventilation, privacy, or confidentiality of an individual’s health condition and provide a suitable environment for healing for the patient, including a clean, safe, and quiet environment. Nurses encourage family support for the patients and ensure that family members are educated on avoiding unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. For instance, smoking predisposes the family members at risk of developing respiratory conditions such as Cancer.
Nurses have a huge role in ensuring that individuals meet their physiological needs under nursing care. CHN provides oxygen therapy, assists patients in the elimination needs, and assist the individuals in feeding. Nurses perform a detailed health assessment and construct nursing diagnoses and care plans for their patients. Nurses keep records of their clients, administer treatments, and monitor patients’ vitals at intervals depending on their condition. Respecting patients’ rights and promoting healing is the role of the nurses in their scope of practice. The nurse is the advocate, protecting the patient’s legal rights (Farasat Kish et al., 2017). Observe maleficence and confidentiality for their patients. Nurses provide primary prevention strategies to the patients’ families and offer consolation to family members of clients who pass away during the period of nursing care.
Group, Organization, or Community
Community Health Nurses specifically work within the community settings to upgrade the wellness of the members. The nurses organize community gatherings or seminars and educate the members on the healthy behaviors they should adopt. The nurses are responsible for improving the health awareness of the community members. Community Health Nurses identify various groups in the society, such as drug addicts or prostitutes who are at the risk of spreading Sexually Transmitted Infections. The professionals initiate the preventive measures of illnesses by discouraging ill-health behaviors (Lubbers & Rossman, 2017). The population is involved in various activities which could adversely affect their normal health. Nurses collaborate with the community members to construct health-related policies. Safe drinking water and timely immunizations are another role of nurses to assess the community’s ability to achieve the target. The CHN closely monitors groups such as maternal women and infants to ensure proper nutrition.
Nurses are responsible for assessing and ensuring that all community members receive equitable health services and adhere to reasonable hygiene standards. Nurses will institute health and wellness programs to upgrade healthcare delivery within the community. The professionals are involved in the recent studies to improve their evidence-based healthcare. The groups and organizations access nurses’ health care directly. The population is educated on making the right health choices and promoting healthy living, emphasizing regular Cancer or obesity screening. Nurses are recognizable caregivers who provide more community needs such as cultural, spiritual, and psychosocial. The CHNs used their critical thinking skills to decide on the correct goals and expected outcomes within the community. The professionals are brilliant communicators who understand effective communication techniques and involve patient charting to keep records of the nursing interventions (Lubbers & Rossman, 2017). Ensures community health needs are achieved through cohesive means where healthcare is well managed.
Nurses work in various settings and assist their clients in recovering quickly. Nurses build healthy relationships in mental hospitals. The nurse-patient relationship is usually constructed during the assessment, and therefore the interaction is essential in achieving wellness. Nurses, through education, encourage healthy behaviors and motivate their patients of been ambassadors of teaching healthy practices. Nurses also have to recognize and treat symptoms early among the patients. Psychotherapy is critical for patients with mental disorders. The nurse utilizes the hospital resources to improve the wellness of people with mental health conditions. Frequent monitoring of the patients is the nurses’ duty to ensure that their body physiology is expected and provide remedies if necessary (Delaney, Shattell & Johnson, 2017). If the mental patient’s condition worsens, the nurse immediately informs the physician. Advocacy is prioritized in this population since most of the population is traumazed, marginalized, or stigmatized.
The multidisciplinary team is constructed whereby the nurses acknowledge the collaborative working among the population. The mental health nurses assess and plan the care and generate interventions to improve the patient’s wellness. Organizing workloads and visiting parents at home. The professionals are usually part of the team that administers medication, assesses treatment success, and arranges for patient’s support by the family members (Delaney, Shattell & Johnson, 2017). Nurses usually record and update the patient care plans for their mental patients. Nurses in the mental departments document any shifts in the patient’s condition and transcribe the physician’s order. The nurses can gauge the psychiatric states of the patients and determine the plan of care for the patients. Conducting psychoeducation is critical for both the client and the family. Restraining and consoling unsettled patients is the nursing responsibility to avoid bed falls or hospital absconding.
Patient care and improving recovery is one nursing duty. Nurses are educators, advocates, researchers, managers, and communicators. Nurses ensure their patients are in good bed positioning and assist the patients in meeting their daily needs, especially hygiene and meals. The rehabilitation nurse assists the clients with disabilities to achieve optimal medical care. Patients who have been denied drug abuse such as alcohol or have been amputated a body part require life adjustment, which the rehabilitation nurse facilitates. The nurse facilitates discharge transition, coordinates and provides care to disabled individuals (Loft et al., 2019). Educating clients on adjusting to their new lifestyle is the significant role of nurses, especially those who are to quit smoking and were initially addicted. The rehabilitation nurse ensures that the patients achieve independence and assist them in acknowledging the new changes. The family is educated on how to handle the patient by the nurse for optimal well-being for a short time.
Nurses also have responsibilities in OPD, which include taking a well-detailed medical history. The professionals are obliged to adhere to their codes of ethics and professionalism. Nurses utilize models in determining their care plans. Nursing is an art and science. The history comprises biographic data, chief complaint, history of present illness, past medical history, family, social and cultural history, environmental and review of systems. The nurse will collaborate with colleagues to plan care, monitor the client’s vitals, and administer medications (Loft et al., 2019). The nurse is responsible for operating the medical equipment and performing nursing diagnoses to generate a care plan for their clients.
Nurses are critical health professionals who facilitate counseling to individuals using the necessary skills. The professionals are required to be aware of the clients’ challenges, be empathetic and respect the beliefs of their clients (Corsini, 2017). Active listening and therapeutic responses are accommodated during counseling sessions for nurses. Nurses can counsel traumatized individuals or those stigmatized by testing positive for HIV/AIDS or other terminal illnesses such as Cancer. Counseling promotes psychological health that is important in the wellness of the clients. Community nurses have the duty of helping the mourning and clients with special needs to adjust in their lives. The nurses ensure that the individuals regain their personal and social roles in the most appropriate manner (Corsini, 2017). A person-centered approach is utilized where confidentiality and respect for the client are considered. Nurses are privileged to understand the patients better since they spend more time with them, know their needs, and understand their psychology better.
Community Health nurses have a variety of roles based on the population they are serving. The professionals are educators, healthcare providers, advocates, and researchers within the healthcare settings. Nurses should uphold their duties to achieve quality health within the various groups in the population.
Corsini, R. I. (2017). Role-playing in psychotherapy. Routledge.
Delaney, K. R., Shattell, M., & Johnson, M. E. (2017). Capturing the interpersonal process of psychiatric nurses: An engagement model. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 31(6), 634-640.
Farasat Kish, R., Ziaei Fard, M., Bakhshandeh, H., & Khalaf Zad, A. (2017). Evaluation of patients’ family members’ perceptions of the roles of nurses in intensive care units in Shahid Rajaee Educational, Research and Therapeutic Center. Pajouhan Scientific Journal, 16(1), 56-64.
Loft, M. I., Martinsen, B., Esbensen, B. A., Mathiesen, L. L., Iversen, H. K., & Poulsen, I. (2019). Call for human contact and support: an interview study exploring patients’ experiences with inpatient stroke rehabilitation and their perception of nurses’ and nurse assistants’ roles and functions. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(4), 396-404.
Lubbers, J., & Rossman, C. (2017). Satisfaction and self-confidence with clinical nursing simulation: Novice learners, medium-fidelity, and community settings. Nurse Education Today, 48, 140-144.