Sample Health Care Paper on Anatomy and Human Organ Donation
Donating an organ entails surgically removing it from one person and transplanting it into another. In the United States, organ transplantation has a long history that dates back to the early 19th century. In the early days of organ donation, most organs were donated by cadavers or deceased persons (Lewis et al.). Today, however, the majority of organs are donated by living donors. In the US, there are two ways that someone can donate their organs, through deceased donation or living donation.
Deceased donation is when a person donates their organs after they have died. The organs are usually donated by people who have died from a brain injury or stroke. The organs are then transplanted into the body of another person who is in need of a transplant. The organ donor must be on a ventilator and have their blood circulation and breathing maintained by the machine for the organs to be viable for transplantation (Lewis et al.). Living donation is when a person donates one of their organs while alive. The most common organs living donors donate a kidney or a portion of the liver. The organ donor must be in good health and have no major health problems for the organ to be viable for transplantation. The organ donor must also be sure they are willing and able to undergo surgery and recovery.
There are several reasons why someone might choose to donate an organ. Often, it is because they have a close relationship with the recipient and want to help them live a longer, healthier life. Some people donate organs because they have a personal connection to organ donation or transplantation, such as having a family member who has received a transplant. Others contribute for altruistic reasons, feeling it is their moral duty to help others in need.
Pros and Cons
There are several advantages to the organ transportation system in the US. First, it is a voluntary system, meaning people can choose to donate their organs if they wish. Second, the system is well-regulated, which ensures that organs are donated safely and ethically. The system is also designed to maximize the number of organs available for transplantation. For example, organs are typically only recovered from donors who have died in a hospital setting, where they can be quickly and safely removed (Hackmann et al.). The system provides financial incentives for organ donation. In particular, the federal government covers the costs of organ procurement and transplantation for most donors.
Additionally, there are a number of issues with the American organ donation system. The system is highly reliant on the generosity of donors and their families. While the majority of individuals are willing to donate their organs, some may be reluctant due to fear or misinformation. The system could be improved (Hackmann et al.). There is a chance that organs may be destroyed during the transplantation process or will be incompatible with the recipient. In addition, not everyone has equal access to the system. People who reside in rural areas or do not have health insurance may have a more difficult time seeking an organ transplant.
Ethical considerations for organ donation. There are several ethical considerations to consider when discussing organ donation. One of the main ethical concerns is the issue of informed consent. This means the donor must be fully informed of organ donation’s risks and benefits before they can consent (Lewis et al.). Informed consent must be obtained from the donor or their legal guardian if they are not of legal age to make the decision themselves. Another ethical concern is the issue of organ allocation. This refers to the process by which organs are matched with potential recipients. Some different criteria can be used to allocate organs, such as blood type, medical urgency, and geographic location. Some argue that organs should be placed based on need, regardless of other factors. Others say that organs should be issued based on who will benefit the most from the transplant, regardless of condition.
The final ethical consideration to take into account is the issue of financial incentives for organ donation. Some contend that increasing the number of organs available for transplantation may be accomplished by providing financial incentives for organ donation, such as compensating the donor or their family (Lewis et al.). Others argue that financial incentives are unethical because they exploit the vulnerable and may lead to people donating organs who are not genuinely willing or able to do so.
The most needed organs are kidneys, hearts, livers, lungs, and pancreas. Kidneys are the most needed because there are many more people with kidney failure than any other type of organ failure. Many people are also on dialysis, which requires regular kidney transplants to maintain health (Muco et al.). Hearts, livers, and lungs are also in high demand because they are vital organs that artificial organs or machines cannot replace. Pancreases are needed for people with diabetes who cannot produce insulin.
Matching Process. The process of matching donors with patients is complicated, and the United Network oversees it for Organ Sharing. The first step is determining who is eligible for an organ transplant. To be eligible, patients must be on the waiting list and meet certain medical criteria. Once a patient is determined to be eligible, their name is added to the national transplant waiting list (Lewis et al.). The next step is to find a suitable donor for the patient. To do this, the UNOS maintains a computer system that matches donor organs with patients on the waiting list. The system considers several factors, including blood type, organ size, and medical urgency. Once a match is found, the transplant team will contact the donor and arrange for the transplant surgery. Transplant surgery is a complex and delicate procedure, and it is usually performed by a team of surgeons, nurses, and other medical professionals. After the transplant surgery, the patient will be closely monitored to ensure that their body accepts the new organ. If everything goes well, the patient can go home and resume their normal activities.
Hackmann, et al. “Read ‘Realizing the Promise of Equity in the Organ Transplantation System’ at Nap.edu.” 2 The U.S. Organ Transplantation System and Opportunities for Improvement | Realizing the Promise of Equity in the Organ Transplantation System |The National Academies Press, https://nap.nationalacademies.org/read/26364/chapter/4.
Lewis, Amy, et al. “Organ Donation in the US and Europe: The Supply Vs Demand Imbalance.” Transplantation Reviews, W.B. Saunders, 11 Oct. 2020, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955470X20300586.
Muco, Erind, et al. Tissue and Organ Donation – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557431/.