Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Smoking: Journal Article Review

Smoking: Journal Article Review

Section 1- Library Research Description

In this case, the topic of social importance chosen was smoking. For a long time, people have had distinct views regarding the effects of smoking not only on people’s health but the society. Two articles addressing various perspectives on smoking were selected for review. One of them was “Peer Effects, Tobacco Control Policies, and Youth Smoking Behavior” that was selected after a search on Google Scholar. The key search words or phrases used and that led to finding the article were “effects of smoking on youth.” The cigarette smoking problem is more common among youths in society today than other age groups, which means that of its effects are primarily on their health. The second article was “The Effect of Smoking on Obesity: Evidence from A Randomized Trial,” and it was also found on Google Scholar. The search words or phrases used and that resulted in finding the article were “effects of smoking on human health.” It cannot be doubted that smoking poses numerous health risks both on active and passive smokers. Thus an understanding of the effects is critical when it comes to mitigating the same.

Section 2- Article Abstracts and References

Article 1

Title: Peer Effects, Tobacco Control Policies, and Youth Smoking Behavior.

Abstract

This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students. It explores the importance of peer effects and discusses allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have both a direct and indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. The researcher implements a generalized least squares estimator for a dichotomous dependent variable to control for the potential endogeneity of the school-based peer measure. The results show that peer effects have a significant impact on youth smoking behavior and that there is a strong potential for social multiplier effects concerning exogenous changed in cigarette taxes or tobacco control policies.

APA Reference

Powell, L. M., Tauras, J. A., & Ross, H. (2003). Peer effects, tobacco control policies, and youth smoking behavior. The University of Illinois at Chicago, mimeo.

Article 2

Title: The Effect of Smoking on Obesity: Evidence from A Randomized Trial.

Abstract

The paper aims to identify the causal effect of smoking on the body mass index (BMI) using data from the Lung Health Study, a randomized trial of smoking cessation treatments. Since nicotine is a metabolic stimulant and appetite suppressant, quitting or reducing smoking could lead to weight gain. Using randomized treatment assignment to an instrument for smoking, it was estimated estimate that quitting smoking leads to an average long- run weight gain of 1.8-1.9 BMI units or 11-12 pounds at the average height. These results imply that the drop in smoking in recent decades explains 14% of the concurrent rise in obesity. Semi-parametric models provide evidence of a diminishing marginal effect of smoking on BMI, while subsample regressions show that the impact is most significant for younger individuals, females, those with no college degree, and those in the lowest quartile of baseline BMI.

APA Reference

Courtemanche, C., Tchernis, R., & Ukert, B. (2018). The effect of smoking on obesity: Evidence from a randomized trial. Journal of health economics57, 31-44.

Section 3- Article Research Descriptions

The study by Powell, Tauras, & Ross (2003) focused primarily on evaluating the importance of peer effects on the smoking behavior of youths. It also sought to establish the causal relationship between smoking behavior among behavior and smoking behavior among individuals. In its analysis, the study drew on the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey data focusing on high school students from various parts of the United States. In the A&S survey, there were a total of 17,287 high school students from around 202 public, parochial, and private high schools who were interviewed between March and July 1996. Additionally, the study came up with numerous findings in relation to youth smoking. First, it found that while peers may influence an individual’s smoking behavior, individual smoking behavior can also affect peer behavior regarding smoking. Second, the study concluded that moving a high-school student from a school where no child smokes to another where half the school population smokes, is likely to increase the student’s chances of smoking. Third, a tobacco control policy measure has a significant effect on the smoking behavior of youths indirectly through peer effect. Fourth, the extent to which parents engage their children about their day-to-day activities could help to reduce the likelihood of youths engaging in smoking. The problem, however, is that the study does not entail data relating to how the issue of smoking among youths can be solved.

The study by Courtemanche, Tchernis, & Ukert (2018) sought to identify the causal effect of smoking on body mass index (BMI) while using data from the Lung Health Study (LHS) that is a randomized trial of smoking cessation treatments. The participants of the LHS study used in this case were 5,887 smokers between the ages of 35 and 59. The recruitment of the participants took place between 1986 and 1989 with the clinical trial ending in 1994. During the study, the participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and a control group. The study found that the weight gain becomes slightly larger as one quits smoking and that stopping smoking leads to sizeable weight gain although the impacts are most significant for young individuals, females, and people with no college degree. It also concluded that the average short-run causal effect of quitting smoking on body weight is around 1.5-1.7 BMI units, which translates to 10-11 pounds at the average height. Unfortunately, the results fail to highlight the short-run and long-run causal effects among older adults who are also part of the smoking population.

Section 4- Article Evaluation

The article “Peer Effects, Tobacco Control Policies, and Youth Smoking Behavior” is better and more informative than the other when it comes to giving insights into smoking. The most important information provided by the article is that smoking among youths is determined by various factors, such as cigarette prices and public policies on youth smoking behavior. It further postulates that the influence of peers has been ignored when it comes to determining factors that impact smoking behavior among the youth. Undoubtedly, these findings are significant in that they set the stage for alleviating the smoking-related issues in society. Moreover, the fact that public policies influence youth smoking behavior could drive concerned stakeholders to push for the formulation of anti-smoking policies (Bennett, Deiner, & Pokhrel, 2017). Based on the article’s findings, one would raise the question of whether anti-smoking policies as well as addressing issues related to peer pressure could help do away with rampant irresponsible youth smoking behaviors witnessed in society today.

References

Bennett, B. L., Deiner, M., & Pokhrel, P. (2017). College anti-smoking policies and student smoking behavior: a review of the literature. Tobacco induced diseases15(1), 11. Retrieved from https://tobaccoinduceddiseases.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12971-017-0117-z

Courtemanche, C., Tchernis, R., & Ukert, B. (2018). The effect of smoking on obesity: Evidence from a randomized trial. Journal of health economics57, 31-44. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w21937.pdf

Powell, L. M., Tauras, J. A., & Ross, H. (2003). Peer effects, tobacco control policies, and youth smoking behavior. University of Illinois at Chicago, mimeo. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0b69/f7928a47c03e4d78d35e7986a3e85da28375.pdf