- Mass Wasting
- Why does Mass Wasting Occur?
Mass wasting occurs due to gravity exhibited on land.
- What is the Ultimate Cause of Mass Wasting?
The major cause of mass wasting is gravity
- What Role does Water Play in the Development, or Discouragement of Mass Wasting?
Enough water reduces particle friction on the movement while too much water adds weight to debris during the happening.
- Why are Mass Wasting Events Categorized by Location, Material, Velocity, and type of Motion?
The classification is made to understand the causes of mass wasting and understand how to alleviate them.
- What are the Three Main Categories of Mass Wasting?
Mass wasting is categorized according to materials involved, the motion used and the velocity of the movement. Material events include mud, earth, and rock while motion events include free-falling pieces and slide. Velocity events include fast or slow events.Besides, mass movement processes are categorized into falls, slides, flow and creep. Falls are further categorized into rock fall and rock avalanche while slides are categorized into rock slide and slump. Flows are subdivided into earth flow and debris flow.
- What are the 6 Most Common Methods Used to Stabilize Slope?
The slope can be minimized by increasing anchoring vegetation, reduced human activity along contours, mulches, terracing, and erosion control mats.
- A. What is the Difference between Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity Scale Measure?
Richter Magnitude Scale is a qualitative scale that measure the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake to determine its’ size. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is a descriptive scale that measures the severity of earthquake (Petersen et al., 479).
B. What are the Major Hazards Associated with Earthquake?
Major hazards of earthquake include collapsing buildings, falling electricity lines, and landslides, floods due to collapsing of dam walls, tsunamis, and liquefaction.
C. What are the Major Cause of Seismicity?
Seismicity are caused by faulting, human activities, massive landslide, and volcanic explosion, unexpected variation in arrangement of atoms in rock minerals, underground nuclear bomb test and meteorite impact.
D. Which is the Most Common Cause of Seismicity?
The most common cause of seismicity is faulting.
E. What are the Precursors Used to Make Short-term Predictions of Earthquake Activity?
The precursors used to make short-term predictions of earthquake activities include, changes in seismic wave speed, minor shocks, the theory of seismic gap, fluctuation of from oil wells, discharge of radioactive gases, and drastic changes in water levels in numerous wells.
3.Calculation of Richer Magnitude and Distances
- Magnitude is calculated by the formula: mb=log10 A/T+Q (∆;h) (Vermeulen, Petrus, and Andrzej 578)
=log10 1/34+ 1.66 log10 15 +3.3
- A maximum intensity of VI mean, the earthquake was felt by all and a slight damage was caused while intensity VII means the movement caused noticeable but negligible effects.
- Magnitude is calculated by the formula: mb=log10 A/T+Q (∆;h)
=log10 100/34+ 1.66 log10 15 +3.3
- An intensity of IX means a considerable damage on designed structures was caused and ground cracked conspicuously while Intensity X indicate that the movement caused substantial landslides.
- Hydrologic Cycles/ Streams
- A. How do Stream Form and their Sources?
Streams are developed when surplus water from rainfall, melting ice or near-surface ground water gathers and begins to flow down.
B. Explain the Relationship between Gradient, Discharge, and Velocity of Water in a Stream
The speed of water flow in a stream is directly related to the amount of water discharged and the slope of the land.
C. Explain how the Channels of Meandering Streams Move Overtime?
Channels of meandering streams move over time because of the impact of the water flowing on them, causing weaknesses on the banks hence breaking with time. The features formed due to this lateral movement are called natural reeves.
- Definition of Words
- Flash flood is the extremely rapid movement of water in a dry area, or quick increase in stream level above the determined capacity (Aerts et al., 474)
Seasonal flood is an overflow that is usually probable to happen in a river at specific periods or at intervals attributable to a normal indication of the environment through rainfall.
Floodplains are lands neighboring waterways that are usually dry but are covered with water during floods.
- Comparison of Effects of Flash Floods, Temperature Climate, and Seasonal Floodplain Floods
|Types of floods||Flash Floods||Seasonal Floods||Floodplains|
|Main causes||Heavy rains, melting ice||Heavy rains||Reduced floods, dry seasons|
|Rate of development||Fast dependent on amount of water flow||Small areas of land||Fast dependent on the flood|
|Size of area impacted||Not predictable, depended on water flowing.||Small areas bordering the streams||Area dependent on the amount of floods|
|Duration||More than six hours||Less than six hours||Remain as long as floods will occur|
|Examples||2017 West Attica flash floods||Flooding of Conwy river||2002 Glasgow floodplains|
- List and describe Methods that can be used to Alleviate Flooding.
Strategies such as restoring rivers to their natural courses, building above flood levels, protecting wetlands, enhancing trees species matching on the site, home modification to withstand floods, introducing more water storage areas, putting up overflow barriers, and improving soil conditions can be used to alleviate flooding.
- Main Problems Impacting Streams and Other Surface Water Today.
Rivers and streams are affected by human activities such as deforestation and settlement near the water streams. Furthermore, the water streams are affected by earth movement and climate change.
Aerts, Jeroen CJH, et al. “Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities.” Science 344.6183 (2014): 473-475.
Petersen, Mark D., et al. “2017 one‐year seismic‐hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes.” Seismological Research Letters 88.3 (2017): 772-783.
Vermeulen, Petrus, and Andrzej Kijko. “More statistical tools for maximum possible earthquake magnitude estimation.” Acta Geophysica 65.4 (2017): 579-587.