Sample Geology Essay Paper on Water Treatment


            Some of the advantages of using treated water include increasing water supply, reduced dependency on other sources of water such as lakes, promotion of food production, and reduced risks of using unsanitary water in homes, which would increase risk of diseases (Monks, 2015). Cons related to use of treated water include risks of consuming toxic metals such as copper, magnesium, and lead, the presence of pesticides, which may increase the risk cancer (Naidoo & Olaniran, 2013). Use of untreated water increases the risks of numerous waterborne illnesses.

            The standard water treatment process involves coagulation of dirt and other small particles through the addition of liquid aluminum sulfate, sedimentation where the floc is allowed to settle at the bottom of the water supply, followed by filtration. This is followed by disinfection to kill any pathogens, sludge drying, the addition of fluoride to reduce risks of dental caries, and correction of the pH (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015; Naidoo & Olaniran, 2013). pH correction also softens the water.

            Alternative solutions that can be used for areas hit by drought like California include desalination where ocean water is treated for domestic use, groundwater drilling, generation of the atmospheric water, eating and growing plants that consume less water, and utilization of irrigation systems to minimize water use in farming (Solh & Ginkel, 2014; Wilhite, Sivakumar, & Pulwarty, 2014). These approaches would reduce water wastage and increase supply in households.

            Other areas where wastewater is recycled and used domestically include countries such as Singapore, Australia, and Namibia. In the United States, Virginia and New Mexico have also implemented the use of recycled water. The use of this water in these regions has shown that it can be safe and clean. In 2006, local activists in Australia protested against the use of recycling sewage water (Monks, 2015; Daughton, 2018). They associated it with health risks and other concerns.

            Recycling water has helped many nations in tacking the issues of water shortage and waterborne illnesses that result from consumption of unsafe water. The water treatment process removes pathogens and other impurities from water making it safe and clean for consumption.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, January 20). Water Treatment. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Daughton, C. G. (2018). Monitoring Wastewater for Assessing Community Health: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining (SCIM). Science of The Total Environment, 748-764. Retrieved from

Monks, K. (2015, November 17). From Toilet to Tap: Getting a Taste for Drinking Recycled Waste Water. Retrieved from CNN:

Naidoo, S., & Olaniran, A. O. (2013). Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(1), 249-270. Retrieved from

Solh, M., & Ginkel, M. V. (2014). Drought Preparedness and Drought Mitigation in the Development World’s Drylands. Weather and Climate Extremes, 62-66. Retrieved from

Wilhite, D. A., Sivakumar, M. V., & Pulwarty, R. (2014). Managing Drought in a Changing Climate: The Role of National Drought Policy. Weather and Climate Extremes, 4-13. Retrieved from