20th Century Art Work in Western Civilization
Paintings and architecture were the key forms of artwork in the 20th Century. However, that period was also characterized by attitude changes and movements aimed at coming up with more modern forms of art. The key factors that drove these changes were economic, social and cultural differentiation. The artistic forms comprised mainly the inelastic traditional forms in classical architecture. The main objective of integrating visual and artistic forms in the period was to bring out the magnificence of the raw materials used. As such, most of the architecture and designs comprised the raw materials in their original forms.
The 20th century art is therefore difficult to describe through a single word as it entail various concepts. The ideas used in construction by the 20th century architects were original from the sole designs. They also applied the same concepts used by traditional architects which focused on transformation. In this context, transformation was considered to be an attitude rather than a process.
In the construction of architectural designs in the 20th century, the key raw materials that were used included glass, stone, wood, concrete and steel. Each of these materials was used in their natural forms without ornamentation as this was the objective of design. However, the combination of spaces, distinct lines, angles and curves along the edges made the designs outstanding. This could be applied in modern day architectural designs to enhance physical appeal. Through the different architectural styles, various beliefs also existed. There were expressionists who gave buildings a highly textual outlook using concrete, futurists who focused on the elaborate use of lines and space and the others who used graphics to incorporate a range of movements and concepts into the buildings
Paintings in the 20th century on the other hand, were focused on the impressionist belief that there was need to shift from conventional forms towards more realistic forms. This led to the emergence of various groups of beliefs such as the neo-impressionist school of thought; expressionism and symbolism. The driving factor behind each group’s motivation was technological advancement. Each of the artistic groups thus believed in the importance of presenting changes in the western world artistically.
The Second World War, social and political uprisings also led to the growth of the artistic industry in the West. In each case, technological advancements saw the realization of better architectural designs. The expressionists for instance moved from the use of original materials towards the use of more original materials, biophormic materials such as bricks and sculptural materials. The scarcity of several industrial materials during the Second World War also led to greater innovation towards the end of the war.
Apart from this, the need for construction in several sectors such as schools, military facilities and hospitals also led to the need for invention. The scarcity of materials during the period motivated architectural artists to experiment with new materials which led to the development of better designs. The industrial materials were also in high demand by other sectors such as infrastructure and the transport industry. While the Second World War created an impetus for growth in the architectural sector, the key changes had been initiated in 1932 prior to the war through an international exposition that aimed at bringing together architects from different parts of the world.
The exposition which was organized by Johnson and Hitchcock brought together different styles and trends in architectural designs which could be combined to create impressive designs. It can thus be concluded that the modern architecture was born in the 20th century since it is also in the same period that architectural studies were incorporated into the school curricular.
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