In recent years, AIDS was ranked as the number one killer disease in the world. Researchers have tried all ways possible to find a cure but they only ended up with medicine that could help reduce the impact of the virus on individuals. Being a worldwide threat, many people in the world fear the mention of the word AIDS to the extent that individuals suffering from AIDS are stigmatized in the society. This paper aims at analyzing the impact of AIDS on individuals who end up obtaining this disease. The paper will rely on information provided by Gould to provide a clear perspective on how people have found AIDS to be a killer disease and concentrate on stereotypes that does not exist in the real. As Gould observes individuals have exaggerated the impact of Aids even though it is dangerous.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, also known as AIDS, is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which destroys the body’s immune system by affecting the white blood cells that help us to destroy invaded pathogens. On entering a white blood cell, it may remain dormant for some time but later activates itself infecting other cells producing several kinds of similar viruses. After a certain period of time, the white blood cells are destroyed negatively affecting the functionality of the immune system. Individuals that are infected by HIV will turn out to have AIDS since they are very weak to fight off other infectious disease and soon they will die. This virus attacks the immune system, which is the body’s major component of defense against infections and disease. The reason why mankind has not found a vaccination and a solution to curing this infection is because it uses healthy white blood cells to replicate itself. Consequently, once this occurs its leaves the human body’s major line of defense incompetent, leaving it more susceptible to illness.
As one the worlds leading killer diseases, AIDS’ impact on the society has had a hard hitting impact such that a mention of the disease in this era creates shivers on individuals. The impact AIDS has caused on individuals can be classified in different aspects such as the social impact, economic impact and lastly though closely related to the previous ones, the health impact (Harmon, et al 5). Many nations have greatly undergone losses due to AIDS as they engaged efforts that would enable reduce the impact of the disease on the society. The world at large has also been affected by AIDS through the reduction of the world population as well as lowering of the global economy as a lot of efforts were put up for the sake of ensuring that prevention measures and cure is invented, unfortunately the cure of AIDS is yet to be discovered even in the present days. The only discovery made by researchers in the quest of finding the cure of AIDS are drugs to reduce the disease as well as prolong individuals’ lives by reducing the strengths of the HIV virus.
The period between the years 2000 and 2010 witnessed an increase in the number of individuals infected with AIDS, studies carried out stated that African countries were the ones greatly affected accounting for 70% of the general number of individuals affected world wide. These individuals were also found to inhabit the sub Saharan part of Africa. As a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic the world’s economic growth depreciated greatly as there was a reduction in the mortality rates of individuals in the society as a great population of individuals who took part in procreation had been infected (Harmon et al. 9). Also, the society suffered greatly as a great pool of employees who consisted of adults and young energetic men and women who were used as the labor forces in the society had also been infected reducing the productivity rate as well as knowledge of the roles they played in the society.
There are several theories that I will come up with to explain the existence and the growth of AIDS. A number of individuals believe that AIDS is religious bound as it wants to reduce the world population. Condon and Tapen (72) believe that it is important to observe that though AIDS is a killer disease, the fact that it is relayed in the body through vital body organs the reproductive parts of human being means that all the theories we hear are aimed at preventing individuals to look at the AIDS as a very negative aspect of the human life. A lot of individuals who suffer from HIV tend to have these feeling of denial and tend to hide or differentiate themselves from the rest of the population; they further suffer from stigma and other ailments that are hard to bear.
As Gould observes, AIDS can be likened to a nuclear weapon whose impact is unusual, the body protective cells are overpowered by the virus that conveys AIDS weakening the body to the extent that one can’t easily come back to normalcy if proper measures of fighting the virus are engaged. Scientists and researchers have tried to find a solution to fight the Aids threat but end up with no benefit; there also exist a great differentiation between social classes who suffer from the disease as the rich are able to maintain themselves even after obtaining the disease while the poor lose themselves in poverty (Duflo, Pasculine, Michael and Samuel 42).. This is brought about by globalization and financial inequalities that exists (Freeland). Though governments have tried to provide their input to this aspect of AIDS, they are yet to succeed because some of the procedures they make are similar all over therefore it is not useful or worthy for the whole topic.
The impact of Aids in the society has led to different sectors’ decision to find ways of treatment, care as well as support for individuals who end up suffering from the menace. In the course of addressing the challenges, these institutions have engaged efforts to ensure that they possess the rightful capacities that would enable them to interact discharge their role (Duflo, Pasculine, Michael and Samuel 42). Also, there have been efforts to engage the international bodies that handle matters to do with health which cover the entire globe so that there may be uniform focus when handling the pandemic. The international organizations are also required to address vices such as human rights and discrimination of individuals suffering from the disease (Condon and Tapen 72). There is also the need to enact policies that would be adopted by nations so as to enhance the fight against HIV as this would restore peace, development and good relations to the world societies. There is an increased amount of school dropout rate due to engagement in sexual activities. Though early pregnancy was found to be on the rise, the teenage girls and boys were found to be at a greater risk of contracting HIV and AIDS since they were not familiar with the various prevention methods.
According to the data and statistics of WHO, global summary of the AIDS epidemic, the number of people living with HIV is around 33.3 million and AIDS death in 2009 is around 1.8 million. Economic and social perspective also play am important role. Moreover, prevention can be divided to 3 levels, primary prevention is crucial to the issue, which is also most effective way to get rid of the problem. Tertiary prevention is the last line of defense, reminding the Chinese government should do something before it is too late. Lastly, social justice should be upholding in Chinese, this is the most critical aspect to see whether the AIDS problem can alleviate or not. Research has shown that many young people between the ages of 13-29 are not concerned about becoming infected with HIV/AIDS and many of them do not know their HIV status.
Some of the major problems that nations have found to be challenging in the quest to fight and prevent the spread of HIV is lack of funds, while some nations have developed economies that enable them to effectively carry our research on how to combat the diseases, the underdeveloped nations end up suffering since they lack the basic mechanisms that would enable them tackle the disease. Harmon, et al, (10) asserts that, “Though donors and other international agencies have been at the forefront in addressing the pandemic form an international point of view, there are little efforts engaged at the grassroots level to ensure that there is uniformity in handling the menace.” Among the notable efforts by the international community in addressing the problem with regard to underdeveloped countries is provision of the formal policies that are aimed to meeting the needs of the organizations’ goals of eradicating AIDS within a set timeline, these efforts are further addressed in international sanctions without doing a contextual study to ascertain the situation as it is.
A number of methods were initially devised to treat individuals suffering from AIDS among the methods that were recommended were giving the patients a balanced diet which would enable the victims’ body cells be able to fight the menace with ease. According to Too, et al (5) individuals were advised to engage in physical exercises as this would activate the body protective cells thus fighting the virus. It is however critical to note that these methods were only aimed at reducing the impact of the disease on individuals and not necessarily a cure mechanism. Though these methods were found to be effective in reducing the impact of the aids virus on individuals, it was not cross cutting among the entire populace as some individuals were enable to efforts meals that would accommodate all the nutrients that form a balanced diet, some of the low income earners and individuals from underdeveloped nations were not able to effectively handle the AIDS menace as they lacked the capabilities to afford the meals which would further strengthen them to perform exercises (Too et al. 5).
Use of anti retroviral drugs is the most common method of HIV and AIDS prevention in the society today, the invention of these drugs has greatly aided individuals as they are able to continue with the normal duties and performance (Rukundo, Brian and Eugene 2). The prescriptions of these drugs are vital to the sense the patients are supposed to adhere to the set time and requirements (Mayer and Hank 47). Individuals are further advised to desist from some other activities while under medication; this is to enable the drugs to have its intended effect on the body. Condon and Tapen (72) have this belief that as a result of the nature drugs individuals are further advised to consume some particular foods that are rich in body protection nutrient for proper functioning of the drugs. There were increased cases of stigmatization and fear among the caregivers after witnessing the extent to which the disease can get someone. Severe physical symptoms were recognized which could not be managed due to poverty levels in the region. Care givers were found to greatly assist the patient as they aided in reducing the pain undergone by the patients leading to the recommendation that the patients suffering from AIDS needed adequate attention and hospice.
The mystery surrounding the origin and spread of HIV and AIDS has a wide explanation that getting the true account on whose theory is true becomes difficult. Jenkins (5) states that “AIDS is believed to have been in existence from as early as 1969 through from an account of a young 15-year old African boy who was diagnosed with a disease that had weakened his immune system, after the death of the boy, the researchers branded the diseases that had lowered the boys immune system as the first account of HIV/AIDS.” As time went by more instances that led to death of patients were recorded and that is what is believed to be instances when AIDS gained root into the country since description of the symptoms and circumstances that led to the deaths of this individuals that proved difficult for researchers to comprehend.
In the years preceding the case of 1969, similar cases were reported in different parts of the world with each country recording a number of individuals who were believed to have acquired the virus that causes AIDS (Rukundo, Brian and Eugene 3). By the year 1983, the World Health Organization (WHO) had recorded close to 10 million individuals who had received the HIV virus globally and a further predicted 3 Million to be reported five years from then. Jenkins provides a simple description of AIDS starting from its origin, the global history the various assumptions and theories that individuals come up with to describe the spread of HIV (Duflo, Pasculine, Michael and Samuel 42). The theories of the origin of HIV are presented in a varied depending on the location. She further provides accounts on how the virus was transmitted to human being and the spread. Discrimination has grown over the years to become a major problem around the world.
There are many different issues that discrimination addresses; one of the main issues assesses HIV/AIDS. Many people who are infected with the disease are discriminated against due to a predicament that they have no control of after they have been diagnosed. In various instances, ambulance workers are not transporting AIDS patients to the hospital, and funeral-parlor employees refuse to handle the bodies of AIDS victims who died. Although homosexual men and bisexual men remain the main AIDS risk group in the United States, the list of AIDS victims goes on to include newborn infants and happily married heterosexual couples.
There has been increasing efforts to handle the problems resulting from HIV and AIDS globally, these measures have been taken up by world leading organizations such as the UNAIDS whose mandate is to find out the probable cure and prevention of HIV. These study describes mechanisms that can be adopted by developing countries in handling the HIV through analyzing the impact of AIDS on the health of individuals as well as a consideration of the other intervention mechanisms that when adopted can effectively handle the disease (Mayer and Hank 47). The circumstances that led to spread of HIV and AIDS had a long standing effect on the economies of the world as there were travel restrictions of individuals from countries where severe HIV cases were reported (Jenkins 10). The most notable restriction was the travel advisory on entering the United States in 1987 which was later put into law in 1993 citing the significance of public health and protection against communicable disease under the immigration Act.
As the spread of the disease gained root in the world, it was declared that December 1st was to be a world’s AIDS day where medical professionals and social workers were asked to advice couples on the prevention measures of HIV as each and everyone was exposed to the virus. There were also materials spread around to increase awareness of HIV and AIDS as a killer disease (Zhang and Clyde 13). By the 1994, AIDS was identified as the world’s leading cause of death of adults between the ages of 20-50 accounting for close to 15 million people of the global population (Jenkins 19). Measures to find the cure of HIV AIDS proved futile due to the nature of the virus that researchers found cruel to comprehend. However the researchers found out that there were ways of reducing the risks of the mother to child spread of the disease through the AZT and births through the Caesarean section.
The origin of AIDS received another twisted account when in 1999 a researcher from the United States asserted that the original source of the virus causing AIDS was a chimpanzee found in West Central Africa which might have been transmitted to humans during hunting and gathering exposing the virus from the animal to human beings blood. Zhang and Clyde 13 asserts that “An account of AIDS that individuals found to be misleading was the case in South Africa which stated that having sexual intercourse with a virgin could cure AIDS an assertion that contributed to increased cases of rape and incest in the world.” By the 2003 it was anticipated that the AIDS menace would contribute to a reduction of the world’s population by half a billion by the year 2050. However, a reprieve for the AIDS patients was announced when a biotechnology company presented a vaccine for AIDS which was found to reduce the infection rate significantly (Jenkins 6). A new clinical trial in 2009 showed increased measures to prevent the spread of the HIV virus in women.
There are several misconceptions with regard to the origin of HIV and AIDS, many people believe that HIV has come about due to the environmental changes that occur in the world, they state that HIV came about as a result of a natural occurrence. The idea of the origin of AIDS has led to the rise of some theories that try to explain the origin of the menace. It is however important to note that the whole idea of HIV is as a result of a virus that leads to the spread of the disease in a humans body (Duflo, Pasculine, Michael and Samuel 42). Though a number of individual refute the concept of a virus as the main cause of the disease, research has ascertained that it’s true that the disease is as a result of the HIV virus. Mayer and Hank (47) are of the view that among the supporting information that this is the case include, the appearance of AIDs among the world’s population has evidence that the disease is as a result of the a virus, during a study in the united states to ascertain the origin of the disease in 1981 there were traces of frozen blood samples that portrayed traces if HIV antibodies which is a clear proof that the disease is as a result of a virus that gets into the blood vessels of an individual, weakening the red blood cells which later leads to body defoliation.
According to the nature of an individual’s background, the HIV virus can be used to determine whether an individual will develop AIDS, while some society allows some practices such as homosexuality and polygamy, in other societies, individuals are unable to display their characteristics in public or rather some activities are unlawful in these nations. Due to these factors which also include an individual’s sexual orientation, the virus can be used as a denominator to ascertain whether an individual will acquire Aids or not. Among the methods that one can acquire the virus is through transfusion, injection and other contact related activities which have proved to be gruesome.
The control measures of HIV through the use of anti-retroviral therapy as one of the methods of eradicating the disease as adaptive features of individuals can be enhanced to enable the cells in the body to develop immunity against the virus causing AIDS. This is through a number of approaches that they present including the CD4 T-cells that employs the utilization of the properties of the stem cells which reprogram the anti HIV memory to remove the viral reservoir thus leading to eradication of the disease. Though it has become hard to find out the cure of AIDS there is still some optimism that with the current technological advances the cure will soon be discovered, however it has been discovered that the exponential processes are inexorable, resulting to the malfunction of vital body organs as experienced by patients who have advanced HIV infections where by a number of body parts stop responding to stimuli for instance individuals relay matters such as heart failure.
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