The automotive sector is an essential economic facilitator. The industry creates direct and indirect industries that cover a wide range of products such as electronics, steel, and rubber. Car modifications are the necessary changes that are made to a vehicle so that the end product differs from the original production specifications. The consumer preferences and societal pressures have led to technological developments in the automobile industry. Consistent regulatory policies and push for increased automobile efficiency in the vehicle industry have been the primary drivers for car modifications for reducing mass and fuel emissions (Bernzen, Parca, & Reutter, 2016). This study aims to review the available literature on car modifications and its effects.
Car modification requires a devoted team of experts such as engineers, managers, and planners to control the costs, schedule, regulations, and customer needs (Di Stefano, Stuckey, & Kinsman, 2016). Worthington, Tuke, Powers, & Lee, (2017); Okano, & Ninoyu, (2019), note that different vehicles usually undergo various alterations in respect of performance and appearance, a process known as car tuning. In the world of automobiles, engine tuning is an essential factor, and it could range from grading of transmission to other performance additions. Bernzen, Parca, & Reutter, (2016) argue that the performance of vehicles is profoundly affected by changing the gearbox and the suspension system. However, there have to be several tests conducted on the car before it can be produced although multiple drivers prefer to adjust their suspension systems according to their style of driving to get a personal touch on their vehicles performance.
Car modification services provide equipment installation, vehicle modifications, and new driving evaluations according to the user’s preferences and people with disabilities to enable them to remove their barriers to transportation or enhance vehicle performance (Gee, 2016). Therefore, the vehicle modifications programs may include structural modifications, driver evaluation procedures, or trivial non-structural modifications. Structural modifications include advanced braking systems, reduce steering and braking effort, raised roofs among others. Another aspect that is considered in car modifications is customization (Worthington, Powers, & Lee, 2017). This process allows for the possibility of a vehicle to be custom-made by mixing various personal elements into the vehicle design such as the style and shape. According to Okano & Ninoyu (2019), vehicle modifications comes in all ranges such as bigger and louder exhausts, tinted windows, massive spoilers, neon lights, enhanced music systems lowering, or raising car suspension among others.
Different companies use different strategies of car modifications since it is an expensive, risky, and complicated process. Different companies use various technologies to achieve their desired results such as sharing platforms with more experienced engineers, utilizing database designs, and lean manufacturing approaches (Kamkar & Safabakhsh, 2016). Datta, Kidston, & Colville, (2015), noted that the choice of quality material in vehicle modification is an essential element to consider since it will determine the level and quality of performance of the vehicle. Therefore, if the car is to be modified for more stability in activities such as sports, then the chassis and other parts should be reinforced with a standard metal such as steel, and strengthen the suspension systems accordingly. Designing the vehicle with multi-materials and advanced designs provide a more significant chance for the vehicle’s weight (Bernzen, Parca, & Reutter, 2016). A combination of various production materials provides designers with opportunities to exploit the benefits of each material used and to obtain optimal performance and production efficiency.
Some of the vehicle modification materials include carbon fiber, which is lightweight, corrosion free, fuel efficient, and can be designed for optimal aerodynamics (Dey et al., 2016). Others use polymer-metal-hybrid to develop the vehicle modifications, which is used effectively in the production of integrated vehicle components that are easier to assemble and significantly reduce the vehicle’s weight compared to other metals (Worthington, Powers, & Lee, 2017).The laser forming technology is also used in vehicle modification particularly in the formation of unique body parts. According to Dey et al. (2016), the lasers are used for direct heating of metal in the formation process while the hydraulic rollers are used to press the metal to form sheets. The sheets can later be spray formed using the rapid solidification processes of the sprayed products to create molds.
Car modification is an essential process used to transform original car designs into more effective models for human use. Car modifications are necessary because they help individuals adapt to various situations that would have been difficult were it not for the modifications. Modified vehicles are cars that have been enhanced to boost or alter their performance or appearance designs. In most cases, a car is modified with aftermarket aspects based on the owner’s preference or its use. However, various governments have laws that limit and moderate vehicle modifications for insurance purposes. Therefore, car modifications are necessary since most individuals have different preferences and uses for their vehicles and it is essential to have the right car modifications for example for the disabled to improve their lives and reduce dependence on the able individuals to drive them everywhere which is costly.
Bernzen, W., Parca, H., & Reutter, D. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,415,752. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US9415752B2/en
Datta, R. L., Kidston, K. S., & Colville, M. R. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,002,568. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US9002568B2/en
Dey, K. C., Rayamajhi, A., Chowdhury, M., Bhavsar, P., & Martin, J. (2016). Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication in a heterogeneous wireless network–Performance evaluation. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 68, 168-184. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968090X16300018
Di Stefano, M., Stuckey, R., & Kinsman, N. (2016, September). Australian drivers with disabilities using vehicle modifications: User demographics, human factors and road safety issues. In Australasian Road Safety Conference, 2016, Canberra, ACT, Australia. https://trid.trb.org/view/1435935
Gee, R. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,507,413. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US9507413B2/en
Kamkar, S., & Safabakhsh, R. (2016). Vehicle detection, counting and classification in various conditions. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 10(6), 406-413. https://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-its.2015.0157
Okano, T., & Ninoyu, M. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/173,657.
Worthington, E., Tuke, M., Powers, K., & Lee, S. J. (2017). Reduction of Drag on Commercial Trucks via Vehicle Modifications. In 55th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (p. 0944). https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2017-0944