Sample English Essay Paper on Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation


To: EGR 386W Students

From: Student

Instructor CC: Mark Szopinski, Teaching Assistant

Date: 9/30/16

Subject: State of the Art Literature Review


Energy efficiencies have the goal to improve the efficiency of the energy systems by reducing energy consumption, enhancing output at low costs. The systems also promote environment sustainability. In the research, the need to implement energy efficiencies in our school promotes the development of an advanced cooling system. The school laboratories consume a lot of energy and as a way to conserve the energy the cooling system design had to be improved.


The memo addresses ways in which energy efficiencies in the laboratories can be improved. The high-energy consumptions in the laboratories and lack of ventilation have increased the costs of operation pose a health risk to the students. The design seeks to redesign the equipment in the laboratories to suit the Environmental Protection Agency, EPA guidelines on gas emissions and energy conservation [1]. The process with being done in phases with the focus on improving the energy performance of the various components in the laboratories. The design plan will reduce the emission of fumes in the environment; regulate the heating mechanism by installing a variable air volume (VAV), and updating the existing building automation systems (BAS).

Variable Air Volume

The system resembles the HVAC model. A component improves energy efficiency in the heating and cooling components of different zones in the building. The VAV component saves up to 30% of energy costs compared to the current dual duct systems [2]. The main duct or the primary air in the VAV cools gas at an estimate of 55°F [3]. The duct varies the cooling with the temperature in each zone. Thus, it depends on the static pressure in the duct. The system is fit with an SP sensor that detects the change in pressure and volume thus triggering the thermostat to start the fans to regulate to pressure to the set constant. The VAV system, therefore, do not need to be active on a full-time but can be triggered by the need that saves on the energy of running the cooling system. A terminal unit is also necessary for the effective operation on the VAV. The terminal unit regulates the flow of air in and out of the VAV enabling it to cool or heat the room. The VAV terminal unit will control the speed of the fan depending on demands placed on the system. Thus, the SP sensor is necessary for the development of the system.

Other Improvement

Improving the BAS will help enhance the effectiveness of the VAV systems. This will be achieved by digitally controlling the laboratory using a computer-based central processing unit (CPU) [4]. The system will integrate the information in the VAV and give reports of how it functions. In the case, there are any irregularities; the system will indicate on the CPU for maintenance. The sensors on the VAV also need to be functioning effectively, and thus the signal is recorded in the CPU to analyses the response mechanism of the VAV. The integration of the VAV in the CPU system enhances the functionality of the system. In that, one can perform complex functions with ease, can give instruction on the VAV systems, and can record the temperature, pressure, and air quality. The system also does not require calibration as the manual systems. To create and sustain a communication between the VAV and the CPU, micro processing chips will be fit into the VAV system [5].


One way to reduce energy waste is by rearranging the apparatus is the laboratory to air circulation. However, there is need to fit in a VAV that regulates the quality and temperature of air in the lab. The system has t be input with a digital component that regulates the temperature in the laboratory. Managing the system efficiently requires the connection to an external CPU that records, reports, and analyses the function of the system.


The literature review gives the functionality of the VAV, thus informing the technical approach with which to remodel the system to enhance effectiveness. It also gives the background knowledge of the legislation that informs the choice of energy efficient systems.


[1] EPA. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation. June, 2011. Energy Efficiency Projects. Available:

Summary: It gives the environment aspect that should be promoted the energy efficiencies. The EPA is the environment regulatory body.

[2] M. Hydeman, S. Taylor, J. Stein, E. Kolderup, T. Homg, Advanced Variable Air Volume

System Design Guide. California Energy Commission, October, 2003.


Summary: It evaluates the functionality and conceptual framework of the VAV. It outlines how the components interact to allow the VAV system to heat and cool the room.

[3] Arch News. 1 may 2006. Variable air Volume Systems. Available:

Summary: It defines the operation of the VAV systems to enhance energy conservation. It explains the basic technical operations of the system and the components that it constitutes.

[4] KMC Controls. “Pneumatic to Digital: Open System Conversions. Available:

Summary: It expounds on the fusion of the VAV systems with the CPU. The use of the CPU to turn the VAV into a digital cooling system and enhance its functionality.

[5] Method and apparatus for reducing switching noise in a system-on-chip (SoC) integrated circuit including an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) by R. Singh, P. Drakshapalli, J. Fang, E. Angel, M. Sood. (7 April2009). US7515076 B1


Summary: It explains the functionality of the micro processing chip and its effectiveness in the VAV system. It explains the relation between the chip, CPU and the VAV cooling systems.