Sample Education Paper on Moroccan System

The Moroccan education system consists of four levels; pre-school, primary, secondary
and tertiary. The Ministry of National Education supervises school education. It has been
significantly devolved to the regional levels. The Ministry of Higher education and Executive
Training oversees all the activities carried out in tertiary institutions. Children the age of 13 years
and below must attend school as stipulated by law. Secondary schools in the country have
enrolled about 55% of young people (Lee, pp8). Those receiving higher education only make
about 13%. For improvement of education quality and access, several policy reviews have been
launched by the government. This has helped to tackle the unending illiteracy challenges.

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Figure 1 The Moroccan education system includes pre-school, secondary and university education
The Sustainable development goal on education involves investing in children, and young
people to achieve a more equitable, just, and sustainable world for all. In morocco, primary
education is virtually widespread. The government and other relevant stakeholders are in the
process of increasing literacy rate of the young people aged between 15 and 24 years. The
country has recorded a significant improvement in gender parity at all levels of education as
asserted by Lee, pp8. Political participation among women has increased as a result. The
proportion of parliamentary seats held by women increased to around 18% in 2011 from 0.7% in
1997 (Diyen, pp212).

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As always, education acts as the society’s backbone, having a major contribution in a
country’s development in sectors like agriculture, law, health, and business. Education is not
necessarily part of the government’s primacy in Morocco. In terms of financial aid as well as
human resource, the government seems to show some laxity in ensuring adequacy. In many
instances, the Moroccan educational system has shown some floppiness. Of all the interventions
employed by the stakeholders concerned, none has managed to look into the crux of challenges
witnessed. All the concerned stakeholders have somehow failed in their capacity to make
education in Morocco a big success. They include students themselves, teachers, parents, and the
government. The government acts as the primary supporter of educational systems’ success in
any developing country. It endeavors to provide all the necessities to oversee a smooth running
of learning institutions.
The government of Morocco on the other hand fails to significantly provide for the
educational system available. The low productivity of both teachers and students reflects the
prevailing lack of adequate support. A high teacher-students ratio has negatively affected
students’ productivity. Teachers are as a result discouraged to follow up on each of their student,
affecting students’ performance because their strengths and weaknesses have no one who is
willing to evaluate.
The teaching-learning process has been dealt a huge blow by overcrowded classrooms. In
such classes, students can hardly communicate to each other in a constructive manner. It
becomes impossible to create working groups, which could help in writing papers, working on
projects, and preparing presentations. Discussion groups help in the development of various
competences and skills. As compared to other professionals in Morocco, teachers are paid lower
wages, referred to many as peanuts. This forces them to turn to other activities to complement

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their income. You are likely to find the same teachers in private schools working probably on a
part-time basis, negatively affecting the public schools performance. Technological devices like
printing machines, tablets and laptops are rarely equipped by the government. To make students
more engaged, there are more tangible benefits associated with the proficient use of modern
devices. Teachers are able to meet lessons’ objectives thanks to the environment provided by
ICT in the classroom. For instance, the learning of English has two important elements. An
English teacher must teach listening and speaking in English, as a way of an example. For
assistance on the improvement of skills to listen and speak, students can watch conversations,
music, or English movies using a smartphone, or a laptop.
Both public and private institutes make up the Moroccan higher education system. There
are 14 main public universities in the country, which include Al-Karaouine University, and
Rabat’s Mohammed V University (Morocco Country Study Guide). As inspired by the Ministry
of Culture, specialists’ schools are also included in this list. A good example is the music
conservatory of Morocco. The country boosts of one of the oldest tertiary institution in the
world, the Karaouine University at Fes, which has continuously operated since 859. SIST British
University is among the several national and international universities. It partners with other
public universities with an aim of improving Moroccan higher education. As at 2015, there were
about 130,000 graduates at the country’s tertiary institutions, with about 13% gross enrollment
rate. In the past few years, this rate has remained stagnant. Just a baccalauréat is enough for one
to secure a public university admission. Competitive special training and tests are however,
required if one is to be admitted in engineering, or a medical school.
Business management is another expanding field, besides medicine and engineering.
Three years are generally enough for an undergraduate business degree. Master’s degree takes

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two years. Information and communication technologies’ use is increasing in tertiary institutions.
Software and hardware engineering courses are now available in some universities. The ICT
field is currently producing about 5000 graduates annually (Hamdy). To provide joint degree
programs in different fields from famous universities, European and Canadian institutes are
partnering with Moroccan institutions. Since 2000, the evaluation of Moroccan universities has
been taking place to increase public accountability. To all stakeholders (including students and
parents), the results have been made public.

Figure 2 Key figures in the Moroccan higher education
For education to progress, the fundamental role played by teachers can never be ignored.
A fruitful learning is enhanced by a teacher who is effective. Most teachers, however, tend to

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ignore their significance and thus end up neglecting their provider, facilitator, mentor, supporter,
and leader role. Majority fail to open discussions with their students, denying them the chance to
freely express their likes and dislikes.
Teachers and professors only know how to dominate the sessions. They apply
pedagogical methods that are inappropriate. With undesirable materials, they then force them to
work. Most teachers channel their full efforts to the private sector, performing dismally in public
schools. Because of their guaranteed monthly salary, they care less about public school students.
Educational sociology, psychology, and sciences require highly qualified teachers, of which
some are not. They thus have no idea of coping with various challenges presented, naughty
students, troublemakers, or overcrowded classes.
Every problem presents a solution, as stated by Alice Hoffman. We have thousands of
remedies that could be used to make the Moroccan educational system a success (Idrissi). For
reforms, a thorough consideration of these solutions must be done and it is the work of
policymakers to take over that initiative. The government, for example, should play its part to
ensure as many students are absorbed as possible by building more schools and increasing the
capacity of existing ones. Another uphill task by the government involves balancing the number
of teachers with that of students. Technological devices should be used to equip schools, in
addition to employing more teachers. The adjustment of student behaviors and improvement of
learning outcomes calls for an improved teachers’ training in the fields of psychological,
sociological, and educational sciences.
From this paper, we have seen that the government should not be squarely blamed for the
faults described. Teachers are also to blame. Educational reforms, as a matter of fact, require the
active involvement of teachers due to their fundamental role in the whole sector. As an initial

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and bold step, they need to be sincere in their work. Let them treat students the way they would
treat their children and then learn the desires and wants of these students. Teachers should be
free to open discussions and interact with their students, and allow them to freely express their
feelings. Let the students learn how to respect opinions of others.
Educational reforms must also receive support from parents. Let them teach their children
that respect is paramount. They must encourage their children to remain attentive while in class
(Diyen, pp212). Prior to being a good student, one must be a good citizen. Parents should instill
patriotism in their children, and promote the habit of reading in them (Idrissi). Let the students
distinguish between discovering, learning, and knowledge and their significance. To avoid exam
cheating, parents are required to teach their children how to depend on themselves. The
Moroccan education system has the potential to develop and steer the country forward if all the
identified aspects are to be intertwined to stop these shortcomings.

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Diyen, Hayat 2014,"reform of secondary education in Morocco: Challenges and Prospects."
Prospects, vol,pp212
Hamdy, Amr (June 2007). "Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Egypt Country Report. ICT
in Education in Morocco".
Idrissi, Hajar, Laura C. Engel, and Youssef Benabderrazik. "New visions for citizen formation:
An analysis of citizenship education policy in Morocco." Education, Citizenship and
Social Justice (2019): 1746197919886279.
Lee, Young Joo, Fouad Mouktaoui, and YoungHwan Kim. "Mitigating gender gap in access to
primary education in rural areas of Morocco." Africa Review (2019): 1-14.
Morocco Country Study Guide – Page 23 IBP USA – 2006