Influence of Parental Care and Co-curricular Activities on Children’s Education
Parental care and involvement as well as co-curricular activities in schools are demonstrated as a key and major factor in the academic performance and outcomes of many children. Therefore, the major goal for this study and research is to investigate if parental care and involvement as well as the participation in co-curricular activities in schools can predict the well-being as well as the academic performance in schools (Kisango, 2016). According to many studies related to children development in terms of personality, child-parent interconnection as well as their involvement in various co-curricular activities plays a major influence in many aspects concerning the development of children in terms of academic performance. According to the title of the study “Influence of parental care and co-curricular activities on the children’s education”, this study is based on a quantitative design and it aims at knowing how parent’s involvement and co-curricular activities affect their overall performance in school. The respondents to the study were generally 72 students from Integrity National High School. The results gave out that parental support as well as pressure when combined with the students’ involvement in co-curricular activities really had an impact on the well-being and academic performance and competence. A find out about analysis was conducted in order to establish the various differences between the children that participate in low or few co-curricular activities and those that participate in high or more co-curricular activities. The results are addressed in terms of how the co-curricular activities as well as parental care and involvement have positive impacts on children’s education.
Parental care and involvement in co-curricular activities by children have always been related with the general academic performance and success as well as the well-being of all school children. This has been pointed out as a crucial as well as a positive variable on the academic success of children. These two factors can as well promote the socio-emotional evolution among children. In considering the ecological framework, the interaction between the various schools and families can present positively to the socio-emotional as well as cognitive evolution. The empirical discoveries have shown a positive relationship between the parental care and involvement in their children’s education and their academic performance. This really helps children develop a strong self-esteem and also maintaining better school attendance records. Parental involvement and engaging in co-curricular activities in school in school has been found to be connected to positive children’s attachments to the school. More researches that have been done on the same have portrayed that parental involvement and engaging in co-curricular activities have shown that the various programs that focus on the improving parental involvement and engagement on co-curricular activities in education have a positive effect on school communities, families and children.
Parental involvement and child outcomes
Parental-school relationship promotes the conceptualization of the roles as well as the relationship and the effects on the growth of children on a wide aspect. According to this approach, schools and families are the major players in building their roles and figure of involvement thus generating new and assorted actions that can be related to according to the specified educational conditions (Park & Holloway, 2018). The major discoveries in the family and school relationship demonstrate positive impacts on the same partnership thus contributing to the academic success as well as performance. Concerning the same study, there is also a bold support from the various international researches that demonstrate the positive effects of parental care and involvement towards the success. This is portrayed basing on a variety in meta-analysis beyond several populations as well as different educational levels. However, there exists a very wide range when it comes to parental care and involvement in education definitions. This is because there exists a concurrence among results on research about the general influence of parental care and involvement towards their educational success.
In accordance to a current systematic literature review on parental involvement on their children’s education in various cities in America, there is one study from Mexico that was recognized to be largely influenced by the interference as from the United States (Eichin & Beach, 2018). In another study, Chile acknowledged the supremacy of the collaboration connections between schools and families thus coming up with a national policy for all the legal guardians, fathers as well as mothers involvement to the educational system (Castro-Sandoval et al., 2019). After this policy was published, there has been the emergence of many different local initiatives within the country having the aim of strengthening family school relationships (Lara & Saracostti, 2019). However, majority of the research done within the country has been in a qualitative nature which focuses majorly on the description of the relationship between all the family members as well as the schools they are involved in.
Generally this study focuses on the advancement on the analysis in the impacts of parental care and involvement in schools and how this involvement promotes the well-being of their children as well as their academic performance. This parental involvement can take a broad variety of forms. These include the continuous communication between the parents and the school management, supporting all the children’s learning activities both in school and at home and lastly the parental involvement the various school occasions and activities.
Extracurricular activities and child outcomes
On a general aspect, the children’s involvement in co-curricular activities is associated with various aspects of positive impacts in the development of children and their overall performance in school. According to many researches done on the same study, show that the performance and grades were remarkably high for all the students and children that took part or participated fairly in co-curricular activities as compared to the performance and grades of the students that did not participate or took part in the various extracurricular activities (Verma & Jaiswal, 2020). Some other studies on the impacts of children’s involvements in extracurricular activities have found that the children who decline to participate in co-curricular activities are more likely to drop out of school as compared to the students that participate in these co-curricular activities.
Similar researches and findings have been communicated from a social point of view. The teenagers who participated on many co-curricular activities usually have high satisfaction in life as compared to those that participate to a few or no extra-curricular activities thus having very low life satisfaction. The participation of the children on co-curricular activities usually a positive impact in improving the maturity as well as the ability to make decisions among the school children. Concerning the same, the engagement in co-curricular activities reduces the engagements in the various criminal activities in the society. This is because the various co-curricular activities improve the reasoning as well as the decision making capability. From the above study on the impacts of children’s involvement in extracurricular activities promotes positive academic performance as well as all the social outcomes in children.
Participants in the study
The participants in this study were generally 72 students from Integrity National High School as well as their parents. These participants were taken from the Integrity National High School in the Western Canada and there was no any kind of inducement that was offered. The students had ages that range from 14 years to 18 years. This group of students had a mean age of 15.6 years. Among these students, 41 of them were males while 31 of them were females. The students were in various grades which included grade 9 (n=12), grade 10 (n=28) and grade 11 (n=32). A large number of the parents who participated in the filling of the questionnaires were identifies as being married mothers who live with their husbands. These parents had all completed their post-secondary education which is the Bachelor’s level. All the teachers in the school were requested to give enough time to the children so that they can get good time in completing the questionnaires.
The various scales that were used in carrying out the study included the co-curricular activity engagement questionnaire, the self-perception profiles in children, the parental involvement in activities scale and the demographic questionnaire scale.
The Self-Perception Profile for Children
This scale comprises the quantity of the perception of the children concerning their educational competence, athletic competence, collective acceptance, their physical appearance as well as their behavioral conduct and the overall acknowledgement of self worth. This scale is made up 36 components and therefore utilizes a structural alternative configuration where the children are presented in two states. These two states must therefore decide which state is ‘really true for me’ or which one is ‘sort of true for me’. This type of scale shows to have an acceptable analysis stability (Granleese & Joseph, 1994).
The Parental Involvement in Activities Scale
This scale explains the measure of the perception of the child towards their parent’s degree of support as well as pressure concerning the engagements in co-curricular activities.The questionnaire had 16 components in this scale. This scale is rated by the use of four points. The first one is ‘never’, the second ‘sometimes’, the third is ‘usually’ and the fourth one is ‘always’. Using a factor analysis that was done on the results, it was found that parental support as well as the parental pressure towards co-curricular activities is much high on the children and is thus reliable (Anderson et al , 2003).
The Co-curricular Activity Engagement Questionnaire Scale
This scale includes a list of all the possible co-curricular activities. These co-curricular are split into five major types. The pro-social activities, performing arts, sports teams, school involvement activities and the last one is the academic clubs. Each of the students were asked on the number of times they participate on these activities as per week. They were also asked how many times they participate on other activities on the same week. The combinations of all these activities that are carried out within a week were used for the analysis in the study.
The Demographic Questionnaire Scale
The demographic questionnaire was made up questions on the parents’ age, educational level as well as their marital statuses. On the same questionnaire, the gender and age of their children were included all the questions in this questionnaire were all optional for the parents. This questionnaire is used in the examination of the demographic characteristics that can affect the involvement in co-curricular activities and parental care towards the academic performance of the students.
All the students that were chosen to be used in carrying out the study were taken out of their classes according to the time they had agreed with their teachers. The reason and the purpose of carrying out the study was well explained to the students and the students were given the chance to ask the various questions they had about the study. The students were divided into various groups where they completed and filled three questionnaires, the self-perception profile for children, the extracurricular activity participation questionnaire and the parental involvement in activities scale. The demographic questionnaire was given out to the students to go and fill them from home.
The main goal for this study was to examine and investigate the moderated tracks towards the wellbeing and academic success from the cooperation between the parental involvement and extracurricular participation. With much analysis conducted and done on the study, the major objective for the study is to relay the various findings in the moderated regression analysis. It is important to note that there was no difference in the gender and the grades of the variables used to carry out this study.
Moderated regression analysis
To study the interactive tracks in predicting the wellbeing of the children as well as their academic success and competence, the relationship between the involvement in co-curricular activities and other two classes of parental care was explored by the use various regression analysis (Disatnik & Sivan, 2016). The Cohen’s partialed products technique was used. In this case, all the independent variables are put into a regression equation in the form of a block. This is then followed by the relationship terms. At all the steps, the coefficient of determination (R 2) change was demonstrated to determine the presence of key effects and relationships
The relationship terms were generated by the combination of the activity involvement within a week with the parental pressure as well as the pressure. After the terms were created, they were then re‐standardized. The interactions (co-curricular involvement within a week * parental involvement) were evaluated to predict the overall academic performance of the children.
For the purpose of accessing the moderating effects specific variables were input to the hierarchical regression analyses. The block of variables include the parental care and involvement, the second block of variables included the co-curricular activities done in a week and the third block is the interaction term which is made up of a combination of the parental support and pressure as well as the participation in co-curricular activities doe in a week.
The results obtained from the regression analysis shown that an important relationship between the parental support and the wellbeing of their children and the various activities the children carried out within a week. The results made out of a follow-up analysis shown an important positive correlation on parental support and the wellbeing of their children who carried out few weekly activities as compared to those that carried out high number of weekly activities. This then shown as parental support raised, the general wellbeing of the students that carried out few weekly activities.
The results obtained from the regression analysis shown that an important relationship between the parental pressure and involvement in the weekly co-curricular activities in predicting the wellbeing of the children. Relationships were examined by the re-figuring the regression analysis differently for the students that report below or above the mean in terms of the participation in the co-curricular activities. Results from this study shown that a negative correlation exists between the wellbeing of the students who carry out high number of co-curricular activities per week and the parental pressure. Therefore, this shows that parental pressure increase causes an improvement in the wellbeing of the students who carry out higher number of co-curricular activities.
The main aim of this study was to examine the influence of parental care and co-curricular activities on the children’s education. The results obtained from the study shown various interesting relationships (Johnson et al., 2016). The various levels of parental involvement can interact with the participation in co-curricular activities to predict the wellbeing as well as the academic success of their children in schools. Parental support can lead to children wellbeing. This applies to the children that participate in higher number of co-curricular activities as compared to those that only participate in low or no co-curricular activities.
There was an important interaction between the parental pressure and the involvement co-curricular activities in promoting and improving the wellbeing and academic success of school children and students (King et al., 2020). The division of the co-curricular activities into low and high levels, a follow-up analysis shown a negative interaction between the students who participate in high number of co-curricular activities and the parental pressure. This is not the case with the students who participate in low number of the co-curricular activities. Therefore this shows that parental pressure on the number of activities carried out by their children per week promotes much to the wellbeing and academic performance of the children.
The students that participate in various co-curricular activities have some specific features that can gave an impact on their reaction to pressure. Some children may decide to join co-curricular activities so as to satisfy their needs but on the process experience pressure for their parents on how they can improve on their performance on the co-curricular activities and this may cause worries and stress to the children thus causing a decrease in the wellbeing of the children.
The involvement in co-curricular activities can prevent children from engaging themselves on bad things in the society such as school drop-out. The co-curricular activities also improve the skills as well as the thinking capacity of the students. This is because they are able to face and different situation which allow them to grow emotionally (Ritchie, 2018). Whenever the parental pressure is considered, the children who participate in many co-curricular activities experience a negative improvement in their well‐being. It is very possible to find out that children participating in few co-curricular activities experience other negative effects on their lives. Therefore, pressure does not affect their well‐being.
There is an extra important interaction between parental pressure and the involvement in extracurricular activities that promote the prediction of academic success and competence (Boonk et al., 2018). A follow‐up analysis showed that negative correlation between pressure and academic success and competence for the children who involve themselves in low numbers of co-curricular activities and not for the case of those who engage in the participation of high numbers of co-curricular activities. This shows that for children that participate in fewer co-curricular activities, the pressure from parents cause a negative effect on their academic success and competence.
In general, the involvement of school children and students in different varieties of co-curricular activities promote the general wellbeing as well their success in the academic performance.. Parental support and parental pressure may also play a vital role in the manner in which children perceive different abilities in different aspects in their lives. The manner in which children understand these abilities can really affect their general well‐being as well as academic performance and competence. Unfortunately, due to the increased importance of these co-curricular activities, some of the children may experiencing an increased pressure from their parents so as to succeed in their academics. This pressure can negatively be associated with the well‐being for the children engaged in many co-curricular activities, and on the other hand a perceived academic success for children who are engaged in low number of co-curricular activities (Villalobos et al., 2016). However, an increase in the parental support during the co-curricular activities can positively impact the various children’s well‐being and academic performance, especially those participating in fewer co-curricular activities who may require some additional and more encouragement and support from their parents.
Most importantly, this study has offered various new perspectives on the topics that don’t have the support in the current literature. One of the major and main findings in the study is that the parental support and pressure can show different impacts on the children’s well‐being as well as academic performance and competence. This is based on the prevalence of the co-curricular activities. These important and significant relationships provides a strong foundation for researches to be done in future as well as providing an empirical springboard to those that are interested in solving these complex collection of issues.
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