Shanghai urban planning has been achieved by the extension of the town to the rural areas, to achieve the full coverage of the city within the scope of planning. The central city that embodies the prosperity and historical characteristics of Shanghai, taking into account the population size, the total construction capacity, the function promotion and the ecological environment capacity. Today’s shanghai is not only an important place for science and technology, trade, finance and information in China, but also an international cultural exchange and integration. Shanghai has developed into an international metropolis, an important global economic and trade center. Some proposals also suggest that Shanghai will become the future of the global city. The international mainstream media will be described as the world’s fastest growing economy model.
Shanghai has a population of at least 24,000,000 people. The city has unique institutional and contextual factors. To understand the population distribution of the city, one has to look at the history of the city from 3 decades ago. The immigrants coming into Shanghai demonstrated a high degree of centrality until the end of the millennium. The inner suburbs were the principal recipients of the new migrants. However, the population was quickly de-concentrated by the industrial factors. Today, any new migrants will likely be found in the parts of Shanghai which have high numbers of immigrants. Next, the relationship reversed, and new economic entrants started to set up in the areas which are concentrated with large numbers of immigrants. For immigrants, the availability of housing seems to be a more relevant predictor of new settlement patterns among the migrants (Migrant Settlement and Spatial Distribution).
Of the Shanghai total population, 89% may be described as urban while about 10% may be described as rural. As a controlled municipality, Shanghai is the fourth largest metropolitan unit. However, it is the largest Chinese city since Chongqing has a smaller urban population. The urban growth rate for Shanghai has been negative since the early 1990s. The primary reason for this has been low rates of fertility among women in the city. In 2010, the fertility rates in Shanghai were the lowest in the world at 0.6. 98.8% of the Shanghai population is composed of Han Chinese. On the other hand, only 1.2% of the populations belong to other ethnicities. In respect to the growth rate, the minority population is increasing at a faster rate than 165.54%.
Shanghai has one of the highest life expectancies in the world at about 82.13 years. For men, this is 79.82 while it is 84.44 years for the women. Only a few countries in the world have these kinds of figures for life expectancy. The mortality rates in Shanghai are very low at about 5.97 for every 1,000 births. The city, therefore, has a big aging problem with only about 8.3% of the population being under 14 years and about 22.54% of all citizens being over 60 years old. The labor force faces a big problem due to the potential for shortages in the next few decades.
The spatial distribution of the population in Shanghai may be determined by using GIS. Overall, the regional distribution in downtown Shanghai has remained unchanged over the last few years. Instead, reverse urbanization has been taking place in Shanghai. Shanghai has been on the negative trend since the mid-1980s (Research on Growth Trends and Spatial Distribution). The spatial change of the population has been noted. The reversal has been from the over-concentrated city centers to the suburbs.
In Shanghai, the concentration of production follows the same trends as other major world cities. However, unlike other cities, Shanghai has a more widespread nature of production (Han et al., 877). The location of production and employment is influenced by several key factors such as the necessary market intervention, state intervention and a path to development.
Shanghai is a well-developed modern city with highly efficient infrastructural services. On the public services, the city struggles to develop enough schools and hospitals to take care of the big population. However, the private sector is a major force as it takes off a big demand load from the public infrastructure.
Shanghai pricing has been noted to be highly volatile from various sources. There are signs of a housing bubble which could easily shake the country’s economy. Shanghai home prices have been increasing in troubling ways. The nature of housing in Shanghai has often been a critical driving force in the settlement patterns in the city. With a population increasing by about 1,000,000 people yearly, the city needs to find a way to work with limited space over the long-term. One of the interventions that have been suggested is the construction of an underground housing scheme.
The decision to go underground as opposed to outward or upward was seen as peculiar but envied by other city dwellers from other parts of the world. One of the primary motivations to go downward as opposed to upward was the fact that the city is sinking because of the weight of the existing buildings on soft soil. The new underground housing facility will act as a pioneering technique as most Chinese cities are faced with the same land shortage problems.
Shanghai is not a monocentric city. The production waves mentioned above have shifted the CBD numerous times. When it was monocentric, it had a single CBD which was also the most price land in the city. Today, the model has completely disappeared. For Shanghai, one of the reasons why it was not sustainable was the rapid growth in population especially due to rural-urban immigration.
Another important change that the structural arrangement of Shanghai has affected is access to workplaces. Most people in Shanghai have to commute to get to work. High-speed rails are popular among the dwellers of the city. Road transport is plagued with regular traffic as more and more spatial reconfiguration takes place in the city.
Factors affecting real estate prices in Shanghai
Over the recent years, the cost of real estate prices have been on the rice in Shanghai, this can be attributed to a number of factors. Firstly, the continued economic growth of the city has witnessed Shanghai become a metropolis and a hub for a series of economic activities. This has seen the city increase in population owing to the large number of individuals who continue to migrate into the city in search for different opportunities. The increasing population has contributed to pressure on the existing real estate property hence increasing the overall demand for the resource. In the year 2006, the rate of urbanization in the city is recorded to be at 44%, and increased to 515 in the year 2011 (Yi-Zhang, Cai, and Zhang 90).
Increase in urbanization increases the potentiality of any city and population likely to increase as more opportunities are created within the region. Another factor that greatly contributed to the rise of real estate prices in Shanghai is the constant increase in the per capita income. For a long period of time, the per capita income in Shanghai increased at the rate 13%. The increment in income meant that more individuals became in position to acquire real estate besides improving the quality of residential desired. As a result of this, the demand for real estate was influenced upwards thereby causing an increase in the real estate prices. Government involvement in social housing has been crucial in affecting the cost of real estate in China as a whole. In order to caution its employees from the constant escalating real estate prices, China government have continued to offer support to social housing thereby helping to reduce the demand in real estate sector. Large banks have adopted financing plans for investment in the sector there by aiding the fast development of the sector (Chong-En, Bai, Qian and Wu 67).
The growth of Shanghai
Economic growth of Shanghai has highly been influenced the industrial expansion of the city. The city has continued to play host to different multi-international companies owing to the favorable endowment of the city with various resources. Statistics be the Shanghai statistics Bureau records that in 2008, the gross domestic product of Shanghai by-passed the domestic growth of the country as a whole, China. In the year 2008, the domestic growth product of Shanghai was estimated to be 6.8 per cent against that of the country that was 6.7 per cent. Among the sectors that have closely contributed to the constant economic growth of the city include, service industry, agriculture and manufacturing industry. The rapid growth of Shanghai can be traced to the 1980s when the country entered several trading agreements with the western countries.
The population of the city has massively increased to the current population of 24 million putting the city third largest in the world. The economy of Shanghai is fighting with the menace of congested transport facilities. This has seen the city adopt high speed train facilities that helps the large number of commuters. The high cost of the high speed rail has seen the government subsidize transport cost making the mode of transport highly attractive for a number of commuters in the city (Yi, Cai, and Zhang 109).
The Shanghai market has adopted specialization in its production activities in strive to achieve the production trends in the global market besides desire to meet the specific needs of different market segments within the city. The city has majorly focused in manufacturing industry and in the service industry owing to the large demand within these sectors. Specialization in the manufacturing industry has been fueled by a number of factors that makes the sector highly lucrative apart from being a major pillar in the Chinese economy (Wei, Hua and Ying 76). The manufacturing industry has been central in controlling the overall economy of the city and that of the country, China, as a whole. Despite the reduction in the overall output in the Chinese economy, there are numerous factors that has continued to boost specific sectors in the country. Shanghai continues to enjoy availability of skilled labor, a factor that highly controls the production activities in the city, pool of talents, and availability of key production resources. Firstly, Shanghai has very much created iron and steel, car, and petrochemical businesses are clearly more focused in China. Also, Shanghai appreciates a full-run modern chain in assembling, which is one of a kind, even among the world’s major mechanical urban communities (Han, Sun and Bo Qin 56). Thirdly, industry in Shanghai has an adjusted structure, with a fitting substantial to-light industry proportion and appropriate shares between essential, optional and tertiary enterprises. Fourthly, Shanghai positions best in China, regarding work efficiency and benefit. Fifthly, the general level of administration in Shanghai’s assembling industry positions among the best in China.
Specialization in the service sector has also been promoted by the development of financial sector in Shanghai. The financial sector of the city for a long time have been inclined towards meeting the demands of the international trends. Among institutions developed within the sector include the banking institutions and other micro-finance institutions.
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