Sample Culture and Ethnic Studies Term Paper on The Culture of Spectra Organization is Collectivist

The Culture of Spectra’S Organization is Collectivist

In all cross cultural disciplines, collectivism and individualism arises as an elementary determinant of cultural variation. In any organization, the aspect of cross cultural practices plays a major role in decision making and hence in the overall management of the company.

In addition, the dominance of individualism or collectivism plays a major part in influencing the overall reactions of the customers. In an organization, individualism is characterized by implementation of ideas only by a particular person or body, without incorporating the others. The individuals or entity,  focus on fulfilling their own interests and overlook those of the team.  Consequently, such decisions are sometimes based on personal interests and they promote the desire to generate and achieve new goals while upholding latent social standards. On the contrary, collectivism is exhibited by consistency of the interests in the pool of needs, involving an individual’s aspiration to adhere to certain form of behavior in the group. In collectivism, personal interests are less prioritized than those of the group. Besides, harmony is cultivated in order to bring cohesion among the group members. This puts the interest of the organization first and as a result encourages the development of adaptive and inclusive performance. Based on the examination of who talks, who makes the decision, what motivates the employees and the foundation of business relationships, this paper is of the opinion that the culture of Spectra’s organization is collectivist.


Communication is a major factor in any organization. Failure to develop the necessary communication channels can lead to misunderstanding and unnecessary loses (Ashcraft, Kuhn and Cooren, 2009). In Spectra’s organization, there are in built communication channels which facilitate proper relay of information. For instance, depending on the matter at hand, information is passed on through the communication team. In the human resource department for example, information could be relayed through the chief executive officer, the human resource managers or even the recruiters. Although protocol must be followed, the junior members in the organization have the freedom to discuss issues of concern with the chief executive officer or any other senior staff. Consequently, all the members in the department are notified of any problem, and suggestions for a solution are raised through departmental meetings. This gives all the members in the department a chance to make their contributions and also makes them feel as part of the company.

Also, members from different teams are made to guide the dialogue and matters discussed. Not only does this create a plat form for them to air their ideas and grievances, but it also inspires them to bring their ideas into action thereafter. Besides, the organization is  open with the employees on important events in the organization. They are as well given an opportunity to ask questions for clarity and express their reactions. The necessary measures are also put in place to make the employees feel that the senior managers and supervisors trust and depend on them. For instance, when the supervisors commit a certain task to their juniors, they encourage them to fulfill the task instead of pressurizing them. The employees feel appreciated and this increases their confidence in tackling the given task. This tendency of open communication channels gives the organizational members the freedom to air their views.

 In addition, the organization holds team building activities which greatly enhance the relationship amongst the managers and employees. This provides a plat form for building team skills and communications, and improves the morale of the employees. Employees benefit through experiencing a sense of achievement in working as a team to deal with a demanding task and obtaining ways of advancing their communication skills.

 Moreover, Spectra’s organization regards unambiguous and open communications, and respects the contributions of all those working on its behalf. This includes any person or body certified to represent the organization. Spectra’s organization  strictly prohibit any kind of retribution against any individual who gives information in good faith. Such information could be related to: alleged unethical behavior, breach of governmental policies and regulations, or organization’s guidelines. When employees are aware that their suggestions are important, they in turn become secure about their positions in the organization. As a result, they realize that have more at stake than just a mere salary. This notwithstanding, the organization reserves the right to aptly tackle any individual or body, who intentionally makes a false allegation or gives false information to the organization or other concerned entities.

 Conversely, in individualistic organizations information is always passed from the senior management, down to the subordinate staff. Higher management delegate commands to those reporting directly to them, and the series of commands is systematically passed down the hierarchy (Lankau and Scandura, 2010). This protocol is strictly followed by of both staff and managers. Evidently, the communication practices within Spectra’s organization are a clear manifest of collectivism .

Motivation of employees

Another parameter that could be used to create the distinction between collectivism and individualism in an organization is motivation of employees. In Spectra’s organization, motivation is recognized as a major factor of achieving set goals. The organization however makes sure that, all the members of the organization understand the set targets and develops a positive attitude towards the tasks ahead. This is achieved by helping them understand the vision better, so that they may execute it more strongly. In addition, after understanding their role and the purpose of the organization, the employees are able to appreciate how they fit into the big picture. Moreover; the organization gives the employees a certain degree of freedom in making the strategies of achieving the set targets. This feature of organizational culture elaborates the value of interpersonal relationships that may reduce pressure during the process of achieving the set goals.

 Besides, Spectra’s organization devices the appropriate incentives as well as proper allocation system. Additionally, Spectra’s organization recognizes empowerment and recognition of employees as a way of motivation. For example in every meeting, all heads of department recognizes a member from their team, who has performed extra ordinarily well in a given task. This positive response cycle inspires team members and holds the management responsible for the recognition of outstanding employees. This leads to the effective attainment of the organizational performance and accomplishment.

Also Spectra’s organization has intended their system, regulations and organizational constitution in such a way as to give space to the employee to work effectively. Furthermore, it appreciates the employees according to how they execute their responsibilities, as well as their achievements. Apart from the drive of earning a salary and incentives, the organization also motivates the employees by organizing appropriate health benefits. By dwelling on the arising issues around the health and well being of their employees, Spectra’s organization motivates them and builds their loyalty towards it.

The organization also gives priority to a work-life balance, and encourages employees to take vacations. This practice is carried out with respect to   employees’ private schedules and off work time. Besides, it offers capacity building training to its employees in order to develop them and help them remain relevant in their field of expertise. The training process is always monitored and unbiased. As a result, all employees get equal opportunity and this greatly motivates them and makes them feel recognized and appreciated. These forms of motivations create a mutual interest between the organization and its workers: as the organization looks at the well being of the employees, the employees in turn develop a sense of loyalty towards the organization. Consequently, they feel inspired to apply optimum efforts in fulfilling their responsibilities. The  employees therefore achieve better results and are awarded for their efforts. This cycle continues and it becomes a significant factor in developing and sustaining a collectivist culture in spectra organization .

Decision making

 In any organization, major and minor decisions have to be made regularly. Bazerman and Moore (2006) are of the view that, decision making in an organization is constantly portrayed as a logical and normal process in which choices and views are considered in a systematic way until the best option is selected. Nevertheless, actual decision making processes hardly qualify for such a description. The manner in which such decisions are made and those involved in making them, becomes a vital parameter in determining the culture of an organizations.

 In Spectra’s organization, managers and staff have a democratic relationship where agreement on both parts is considered in the process of making decisions. Instead of being a source of authority, top management takes the role of facilitators. They ensure that harmony and cohesion is maintained among the employees. The organization clearly understands that, failing to identify the specific problem could lead to improper decisions. Prior to making any decision, Spectra’s organization identifies the underlying problem or situation. The top management then weighs up the matter with all the employees so that every person is informed about it. After proper evaluation of the problem, the process of decision making is initiated. The protocol that is followed in decision making involves higher management getting prompt from middle management. On the other hand, the middle managements develop their policies from the suggestions forwarded by the subordinate staff. The departmental committees then take up the task of thoroughly evaluating the overall alternatives. The desirable alternatives are selected and the employees are informed about them and later on the decision is executed.

 This is contrary to individualistic organizations where managers are expected to make unquestionable decisions for the organization. Additionally, the practice of hiring external experts to make decisions for the organization is evident in individualism. There is no brainstorming so as to gather the ideas of all employees. As a matter of fact, the employees in the junior ranks might not be aware of a present problem or situation for which a decision needs to be made. Besides, the decisions made in individualism are generally based on respect, evasion, chain of command and authority. Open difference of opinions is strictly avoided, even if it is evident that the top management is making the wrong choice. Noticeably, the manner in which the decision making process is carried out in Spectra’s organization portrays a collectivist organizational culture.

 Business Relationship

In any organization, different work related relationships are bound to be formed. They could be: between supervisors and staff, among employees, between the organization and clients or suppliers amongst others. For any business to succeed, the formation of strong and meaningful relationships is essential (Lankau and Candura, 2010). The foundation on which these relationships are formed is a major parameter that is used to determine the organizations’ culture. As stated earlier, in Spectra’s organization employees are given a chance to optimally utilize their skills and talents. Their opinions and grievances are also valued by the organization, and positive communication is encouraged. As a result, harmony and cohesion are cultivated in the relationship between the top management and the staff. Additionally, the teamwork that is exhibited in the organization helps to build trust and respect in the supervisor-employee relationship. This is contrary to individualistic organizations which run in a way that vital decisions are made by the senior management and the daily running of the business is controlled by supervisors.  Besides, orders are delegated in a hierarchy and employees are not expected to express any differing opinions. These practices results into an inferior relationship between the employees and the management.

Apart from interpersonal relationships in the organization, interdepartmental relationships are encouraged and nurtured in Spectra’s organization. For instant the supply chain department cultivates relationships with members from all the other departments. It ensures that requisition of the needed materials is made in time. As a result, each department is able to receive all their necessities in time. This in turn develops convenience and efficiency in the overall operations of all departments. Additionally, the supply chain department nurture mutual trust and credibility with their vendors, thus forming a satisfying relationship whose benefits overshadows the costs. Consequently, the vendors advice the organization on the best rates over time.

 In the same line, the human resource team is divided into other smaller departments. This ensures that it creates a relationship with all members of the other departments to ensure a cohesive working relationship within the group. Spectra’s organization  also forms relevant relationships with several colleges. During recruitment, these colleges recommend their qualified graduates to the organization.


Markedly, Spectra’s organization exhibits open communication channels and gives its staff the freedom to air their views. The organization also appreciates and reacts to any relevant information given by the employees or any other entity. Besides, the staff is involved during the decision making process. They are encouraged to give their opinions and they are also given the chance to make enquiries for clarity. Furthermore, the organization has come up with several incentives for motivating the staff. This include: vacation, health benefits, training as well as individual and team rewards after an achievement. This motivation inspires the employees to work hard and also gives them a sense of responsibility towards the organization. Additionally, spectra has nurtured and developed mutual relationships with its staff, vendors, colleges and other stakeholders. These relationships results into effective running of the organization. This paper therefore comes to the conclusion that Spectra’s organization is a collectivist.


Bazerman, M., & Moore, D. A. (2012). Judgment in managerial decision making.

Ashcraft, K. L., Kuhn, T. R., & Cooren, F. (2009). 1 Constitutional Amendments:“Materializing” Organizational Communication. The academy of management annals, 3(1), 1-64.

Lankau, M. J., & Scandura, T. A. (2010). An investigation of personal learning in mentoring relationships: Content, antecedents, and consequences. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 779-790.