Criminal justice refers to all systems and processes that have been set up for the administration and prosecution of crimes within any jurisdiction. The main purpose of criminal justice in any jurisdiction is to reduce crime rates in the area through enforcement of penalties against criminal behavior. The operation of the criminal justice system in any country depends on the type of the system which can be federal, state or city or county systems. The city, county and state systems operate within the confines of the jurisdictional boundaries while the federal system operates across all consolidated states. The criminal justice system comprises of the law enforcement stage, the prosecution, the defense attorneys, the judges and the correctional stage. Each of these stages has distinct functions with respect to crime prevention (Criminal Justice System, 2010). All the stages of the system work in conformity with the system regulations.
With regards to the actual process of criminal prevention, the first stage involves reporting a crime. This is followed by thorough investigation, issuance of a warrant of arrest, prosecution and defense and trial to ascertain whether the accused is guilty or not. From the trial, the judges may sentence the accuse leading to subjection to correctional measures (PPI, 2005). Although discrimination, particularly on racial basis is considered a violation of the equity principle in meeting law and justice requirements, it is reported that the present US justice system practices racial discrimination.
This is because the whites are favored in preference to other racial minorities such as the Hispanics. The excessive use of force is for instance applied more in cases where there are racial differences between law enforcement and the crime suspect. For instance in the State of New York, it was established that two justice systems existed. The first favors whites while the other favors the minorities and the poverty stricken.
Based on the racial discrimination that is prevalent in the criminal justice system, Spanish citizens reportedly face three major challenges. First, there is unequal representation in jails. The Spanish speaking convicts are more compared to the whites. The Spanish males have 11 percent higher chance of incarceration than the white males. Secondly, they are also disproportionately targeted in criminal offenses and are more likely to be arrested than whites. For instance, it is reported that the Hispanic drivers were more likely to be ticketed for minor road offenses than the white drivers who are the majority on the roads. In addition to this, the Hispanics are also more vulnerable to more severe treatment in the justice system. For instance, the Hispanics with no previous criminal records are more likely to be detained at correctional facilities than the whites (PRA, 2005).
From previous research, it is shown that the Hispanics were two times more likely to be given prison terms instead of being fined or placed on probation. The Hispanics who live within reserves are also constantly targeted by law enforcement agencies contrary to the advocacy for Native Sovereignty. Furthermore, they are more likely to be sentenced for crimes committed against the Natives. This is prevalent not only at the state level but also at the national level since the minorities are under national governance. The national laws are thus more severe than the state laws when dealing with the Hispanics. In Conclusion, transparency and equity should be the key objectives of the criminal justice system. Currently, doubts from the minority groups assail the criminal justice system hence the need to eliminate any doubts through equitable treatment across all stages of the system.
Criminal Justice System. The Interaction between Ethics and the Criminal Justice System, Criminal Justice Journal, 1(1): 65-85.
Political Research Associates (PRA). (2005). Defending Justice: An Activist Resource Kit, Criminal justice system Journal, 1(1): 1-6.
Prison Policy Initiative (PPI). (2005). Incarceration Is Not an Equal Opportunity Punishment, Prison Policy Journal, 1(1): 1.
The criminal justice essay summarized above on Criminal Justice is a good sample of the essays we handle. You can read more similar essays on our blog or even request us to custom write one for you at a small fee. Our writers are highly qualified and experienced in writing essays therefore you can rest assured your essay will be written to your satisfaction.