Sample Biology Essays On Biological Molecules

Homework Question on Biological Molecules

List the types of biological molecules, their subgroups, and give examples and roles of these molecules.

Homework Answer on Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules

Bio-molecules refer to large atomic molecular substances with covalent bounds, such as proteins and carbohydrate needed for life. This means that living things, such as plants, animals, and bacteria among others are made of similar biological molecules. They are composed of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, and oxygen. There are four main categories of biological molecules, namely carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.


These biological molecules are mainly known for providing energy source in living things. They can be subdivided into three main sub groups, namely monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and disaccharides. Firstly, monosaccharides consist of carbon atoms that are 3-7 in number and are commonly referred to as simple sugars. They also have ketone group or aldehydes, which are reducing agents mandated with the functions of reducing sugars. Secondly, disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharides and share bonds known as glycosidic bonds. Disaccharides and monosaccharides are generally sweet, water soluble, and crystalline.


Carbohydrates mainly provide energy and fuel needed for proper body functioning of organs, such as heart, brain, immune system, and digestive system. Deficiency of these molecules could cause mental dysfunctions and fatigue.

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These molecules comprise long heteroploymers amino acids strings combined by peptide bonds. These bonds are usually as a result of twenty amino acids that are different in nature depending on sequence. The peptide bonds are formed between successive amino acids group and carboxyl group. They are mainly sub divided into primary, tertiary, secondary, and quaternary structures..