Sample Aviation Coursework Paper on SMS in Aviation

Question 1

The difference between blame and accountability is that the two terms focus their attentions on two different things. Accountability, on one hand, focuses its attention on holding people to account for their actions. The focus of doing this is to ensure that people take responsibility. Blame, on the other hand, focuses its attention on identifying culprits for the sake of laying guilt on culprits. Accordingly, after identifying culprits, blame does not go beyond that point because its focus is to lay guilt on culprits. From this analysis, it is clear that accountability is concerned with understanding circumstances for the sake of finding solutions to problems. On the other hand, blame is concerned with worsening the situation because it does not look for solution to problems beyond identifying culprits. In terms of learning and punishment, accountability is focused on learning from mistakes that have been committed so that they are not repeated in the future whereas blame is focused on punishing culprits (Stolzer, Halford & Goglia 2008, p. 206).

Question 2

In safety oversight, ICAO is responsible for developing standards and recommended practices that its members should observe flight management. It is also responsible for monitoring what its members do to comply with recommended practices, operational safety standards and related procedures that are enshrined in the Annexes of Chicago Convention (Stolzer, Halford & Goglia 2008, p. 212). FAA, on the other hand, is responding for drafting acceptable criteria for policy documents and setting implementation milestones for the U.S. airline carriers. It is also responsible for ensuring that all U.S airlines, airmen/women together with aircraft manufacturers perform their duties safely and responsibly in line with the safety rules that have been set. This ensures that U.S airline carriers and other parties involved in air transport comply with the safety standards and recommended practices set by ICAO. In order to perform this duty effectively, FAA sets rules that improve safety. It also on a regular basis undertakes enforcement actions to enforce its rules and ensure that those rules are followed by airline carriers and other parties involved in air transport. As a governing authority, FAA ensures that rules and regulation including those set by ICAO are followed in USA.

Question 5

The three levels of safety risk management are: reactive, proactive and predictive. Reactive level is concerned with analyzing incidences, determining factors that contribute to those incidences and documenting findings from incidences. In this level, investigative tools are used to determine the factors that contribute to a problem. One of the problems that may be inherent with this level would be the inaccuracies that would occur during an incidence analysis. The inaccuracies would mislead the future safety measures.

Proactive level deals with safety audits, surveys and voluntary as well as mandatory reporting systems. It focuses its attention on looking for potential safety problems through hazard analysis, trend analysis and other scientific methods of inquiry (Stolzer, Halford & Goglia 2008, p. 215). One of the problems that may be inherent with this level would be the tendency to take the wrong safety measure that would not be effective in preventing future risks. 

Predictive level monitors normal operations and analyzes flight with an aim of evaluating what might happen in the future. One of the problems that may be inherent with this level would be the possible inaccuracies that would occur during the predictive process. Such inaccuracies may mislead the safety process.  


Stolzer, A., Halford, C. & Goglia, J., 2008. Safety management systems in aviation. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate.