Research Paper Help on Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

11. Innovation by usage

Innovation by usage is defined as innovation in technology or service based on the practices of potential users (Ambrosi et al, 2005). Mostly applied in information technology innovations, the concept of innovation by usage is also called bottom- up innovation, or horizontal innovation. This type of innovation is based on information about observed user challenges or problems from various employees in the organization network. These challenges and problems are then communicated via interchange networks which are frequently used by the intended innovation users (Inventium, 2014). Action that is taken to correct the problems or make it easy for users to surmount the existing challenges results in new innovations. Terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda also use this approach to innovation (Ambrosi et al, 2005).

12. Differentiating innovation by usages from common innovation

Common innovation may or may not be based on the already existing innovations. On the other hand, innovation by usage is always founded on the already existing innovations. This is because it is derived from the practices of the users of existing innovations. For instance, in developing the mobile phones, the innovations had to be based on the cable telephone and the resultant product had to provide the same services given by the existing one, while also solving the problem of the telephone’s immobility. Usage innovations mainly result in product modifications rather than in new products.

Secondly, usage innovation is always progressive while common innovation may not be progressive. This is because any product of usage innovation has to provide the services of the existing product and solve the challenges of using the existing one. In addition, a new innovation also provides additional services based on user needs, and therefore comes with its own challenges and problems. Consequently, every new innovation is an improved version of an already existing one.

Another difference that lies between usage innovation and common innovation is the number of persons involved. While usage innovation involves both the final users and the innovators themselves, common innovation is mostly concerned with the innovators. Apart from this, the in-company innovators are normally fewer in usage innovation compared to those in other common innovations.

13. Conditions for adapting innovation by usages

One of the conditions under which the concept of innovation by usage is normally accepted is where the innovators are the lead users in a given industry or for a given product upon which the innovation is based. For instance, since Apple was the first company to invent the I-phone, it is expected and accepted that they should come up with new innovation aimed at improving the I-phone. Apart from this, the company itself is more likely to be interested in providing improvements for their product. It would also be unreasonable for another company to innovate the I-phone since the fundamental operation principles are the intellectual properties of Apple.

Secondly, being in a dynamic industry may also warrant the adoption of the bottom-up approach to innovation. This is because competition may be rife in such industries and the ability to align the product features to the customer needs is paramount for success. Similarly, the field of mobile technology may also be considered. If the customer needs are shifting from phones for communication via calls and messages only to internet phones and subsequently to smart phones, it would be unwise to invest in the production of phones with the less desired features.

21. Example of Social Innovation

An example of social innovation is the E-mothers forum. This forum is aimed at bringing together young single mothers with the aim of providing emotional support and financial support through developing the entrepreneurship mentality in the members. Its primary focus is on teenage mothers who have neither familial support nor financial assistance. It encourages the mothers through provision of emotionally helpful material and support group guidance. It also teaches the mothers to be financially sufficient through engaging in various entrepreneurship activities and providing capital for start- ups through the aid of donors.

22. Characterization of social innovation

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, social needs include love, acceptance and belonging (Cherry, 2014). These three are mostly unavailable to young single mothers. Ways of catering for these needs include through fostering friendships and through social groups. The E-mothers forum offers a chance for these specific groups of people to be involved in a social group. It is expected that friendships will also develop within the group, hence catering for their need for love, acceptance and belonging. Besides these needs, the forum will also provide financial assistance as well as intellectual benefits to the members through entrepreneurship education. Also, since this innovation deals on a one-on-one basis with the group members, it directly involves those concerned. This social innovation therefore completely satisfies the characteristics associated with social innovations.

23 Difference between this innovation and classical innovations

One of the criteria that make social innovation specific is the target population (Ward, 2013). With regards to the proposed innovation; it can be differentiated from the classical innovations based on the target users. It is common to find innovations directed at women in general or youths but in this case, the innovation targets women of a particular age range and particular social outlooks. This is the first differentiating factor that makes this innovation specific.

Secondly, this innovation also differs from other classical innovations in the form of its deliverables and the mode of delivery. Apart from the comfort of belonging to a social group, the forum also provides financial support. Most other humanitarian social innovations tend to provide either financial support alone or social support alone. In addition to this, the proposed innovation also provides the knowledge required to make use of the offered benefits.


Ambrosi, A., Peugeot, V. & Pimienta, D. (2005). Word Matters: multicultural perspectives on information societies. CF Editors

Cherry, K. (2014). Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy. Retrieved from

Inventium. (2014, May 15). Bottom up, Top Down. Retrieved from

Ward, D. (2013). Operationalizing Social Innovation Social Enterprise. World Forum Retrieved from