The process of teaching and learning a second language is diverse. This is because both learners and educators apply different approaches and styles. Thus, learning a second language is a process through which educators develop and engage positive reinforcements to ensure the learners acquire literacy skills effectively and efficiently. These positive reinforcements involve error corrections and analysis. Educators striving to ensure the learners acquire reading, writing and oral skills mainly undertake this reinforcement. Exposing learners to errors can assist them to note grammar errors hence, either avoid making similar or repeating the mistakes. The manner in which the error corrections are undertaken however should be evaluated. This is crucial in ensuring the learners are not intimidated, discouraged, or threatened in the course of grammar learning. This research will therefore focus on literature review discussing the various effects of error correction and analysis.
According to Aarnoute and Schellings, there is a program utilized to teach grammar among third graders. The program integrates reading instructions in order to provide an open learning situation. This encourages learners to engage with the educators in formulating problems and solutions as they acquire grammar skills. Thus, the program encourages them to gather, write, read, and speak particular forms of information correctly with confidence. Consequently, the learners acquire skills to correct grammar errors and present grammatically correct phrases. It is however crucial for the educator to assist learners by explaining or demonstrating various writing and reading strategies involving error corrections in order to gain literacy skills. These strategies should involve motivating and enhancing learners’ self-esteem and confidence to boost their morale in learning grammar. Consequently, the learners can learn that grammar errors are part of the learning process. Thus, error correction can enhance the process of teaching and learning second language. However, the procedure should be carefully and positively undertaken (Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003).
This further affirms that, students’ views, opinions, abilities, and values affect the process of reading, writing, and learning a second language. For example, students’ morale and confidence often weaken if they spend more time in school. This is because they tend to believe their literacy skills are below class value hence, reducing self-esteem in grasping lessons being taught in school. Consequently, their classroom abilities, self-concepts, and interests differ as they lack the will to persist. Thus, error corrections should be implemented in ways learners can feel motivated. The educators also require believing in their skills and abilities to engage a classroom of students without second language literacy skills. As a result, they should be allowed to formulate and implement learning processes they believe are effective in providing students with literacy skills. For example, providing students with an opportunity to read out phrases can allow educators to identify common grammar mistakes. These mistakes mainly involve poor pronunciation of particular words or phrases (Coskun, 2010).
The educator should therefore correct the errors in a subtle manner as soon as the students make them. Consequently, the rest of the learners can learn from the error corrections further enhancing their literacy skills while learning a second language. Thus, error corrections should be implemented among the learners across both genders and diverse socioeconomic status without discrimination. Consequently, students from various backgrounds within the classroom can learn and understand a second language through error corrections and analysis. More so, they can development and improve their capacities in writing, reading, and understanding as well as speaking the second language fluently and correctly (Archambault, Eccles & Vida, 2010).
Studies were conducted to evaluate how instructions in morphological awareness assist students to gain and improve their literacy skills. According to Carlisle, morphological awareness instructions can either be phonological or orthographical. The difference relates with the diverse types of meanings derived from various words and phrases in a second language. Thus, morphological awareness is a major factor in ensuring the teaching and learning process is effective and efficient in delivery of literacy skills. This is because the learners are enabled and motivated to gain self esteem and confidence in order to gain and develop literacy skills. Consequently, they are able to acquire deeper meanings and understandings in the second language. For example, the educator ought to teach second language learners how to acknowledge and differentiate lexical spellings. These include diverse meanings of affixes and base words. Consequently, the learners acquire the ability to discover meanings from either familiar and unfamiliar words or phrases. Thus, morphological awareness can provide second language learners with literacy skills. It is however advisable for the educator to engage in error corrects and analysis of grammar errors committed by second language learners. Consequently, the learners can acquire and enhance their literacy skills. Conversely, the instructors’ efforts to improve learners’ abilities and skills in reading, writing speaking fluent second languages can be regarded as effective and rewarding (Carlisle, 2010).
It is evident that, second language educators have to acknowledge the students are bound to commit grammar errors. These errors are made when writing, reading and speaking. In order for an educator to be successful in providing the learners with effective second language literacy skills, the errors ought to be analyzed and corrected. This process enhances the process of teaching and learning grammar. As a result, Coskun affirms that language learners making grammar errors while reading, writing, and speaking should be corrected. This is because the process of teaching and learning a second language will be developed and improved. Consequently, student can acquire language literacy skills with regards to oral, writing, and reading abilities. Thus, educators should motivate and encourage second language learners by ensuring they emphasize the need to identify and correct grammar errors (Coskun, 2010).
Poetry is quite effective and efficient in teaching grammar. This is because learners are taught to write grammatically correct sentences and phrases deriving either indirect or direct meanings. The meanings should be deeply rooted in the message being passed across the poem. Thus, poetry has great impacts towards the process of teaching and learning a second language in classrooms. For example, students in a classroom learning English as a second language can be taught through poetry. This will ensure the educator teaches the students to write correct words rhyming and deriving meanings in order to pass a message. It is however vital to determine educators’ perceptions with regards to their individual skills in poetry. For example, an instructor without poetry interests, skills and experience cannot teach students to write and read poems. Thus, they lack the confidence to teach students without confidence in the second language. This neither encourages nor motivates the students to acquire literacy skills in the language (Dymoke & Hughes, 2009).
As a result, Dymoke and Hughes urge educators to collaborate with students in delivering literacy skills. This will guarantee that, grammar errors are identified and analyzed by the teachers. Consequently, the teachers should teach and encourage the students to reduce and eliminate the grammar errors. Thus, the process of teaching students to either write or read poems can assist them in recognizing and correcting grammar errors. Consequently, they can acquire high quality literacy skills the second language (Dymoke & Hughes, 2009).
Students attending a classroom to acquire literacy skills in a second language have diverse skills, abilities, and experiences in the lingo. Thus, educators ought to evaluate diversity levels in the classroom in order to recognize learners’ mixed abilities and experiences. For example, an educator should evaluate the students’ abilities in researching and writing research proposals and projects while focusing on their language and literacy skills. This is key in assisting the instructors to learn the various concepts students’ regard as wither simple or complex in that particular language (Ivanic, 2004).
Enright however claims that, instructors ought to reframe the lingo concepts in order to expand the various definitions derived from diverse words in the language. This is crucial in achieving literacy skills in a classroom of students either with or without ability to recognize and correct grammar errors. Thus, the educators ought to acquire both simple and complex knowledgeable skills in the second language. This involves evaluating the students and language’s background and cultural meanings and experiences respectively. This is because they are likely to influence the students’ abilities, morale, and willingness to learn the language. Consequently, the educators should develop useful, viable, and applicable measures they ought to use while engaging in error corrects within the classroom. As a result, second language grammar errors hindering students from acquiring literacy skills can be identified, corrected, and eliminated. Thus, the process of providing students with error corrections can enhance the teaching and learning of a second language (Enright, 2011).
According to Ferris, there are different effects from engaging in error corrections. For example, feedbacks of correcting errors in writing differ from reading in learning English as a second language. This is because the instructors often use different teaching approaches in teaching students to read and write a second language. Educators often encourage students to read out phrases in the classroom. This ensures the students acknowledge each other’s literacy skills in learning the second language. This process can derive diverse effects. For example, some students can feel intimidated, threatened, and shy in making grammar errors. As a result, they lack the morale and willingness to attend and engage in the learning process. The educators should therefore derive several ways to correct students’ grammar errors. They should combine reading and writing skills to identify grammar errors. This can ensure the educator can teach students to avoid making grammar errors based on their writing abilities. Consequently, the students’ morale, confidence, willingness, and ability to acquire literacy skills in the second language can be boosted, enhanced, and achieved within and outside the classroom (Ferris, 2006).
A meta-analysis theory and research identifies various discourses applied in analyzing approaches to teach writing and reading skills among second language learners. The theory asserts that, applying explicit teaching approaches relying on phonics and accuracy enhances students’ literacy skills. This also encourages them to develop creative expressions enhancing their process and experience of learning the second language. This is because the process involves mental and practical procedures encouraging students to gain communication and critical thinking skills. For example, students seeking the definition of explicit text type involve a diverse process. Some seek to find the relevance of the text based on their cultural or background aspects in order to derive the meaning (Ivanic, 2004).
Consequently, they engage in critical thinking to determine how the text can be applied in the language. The process of thinking and communicating a phrase learnt from a second language further enhances the students’ abilities to construct, contest, and change their literacy skills. As a result, they identify and learn grammar errors as the educators teaching the particular second language ought to focus, analyze, and correct the grammar errors. Thus, meta-analysis theory and research is crucial in teaching students to acquire comprehensive reading and writing skills in any second language. More so, it improves their literacy skills through the enhanced process applied by educators to teach the language (Ivanic, 2004).
According to Mishra, there are several practical techniques viable in assisting students to learn a second language. It is however crucial to ensure the students identify and accept the need to learn the language. This process is often determined by the students’ attitude towards the language. For example, students determined to learn English as a second language often have positive attitudes. However, they can change and develop a negative attitude towards English if they persistently and consistently make common grammar errors and mistakes as these discourage students (Mishra, 2005).
Mishra therefore encourages language teachers to adopt the process of correcting students in case they make grammar errors. This can motivate the students to accept that, the learning process engages learners willing to learn from their mistakes. Consequently, they can learn to embrace the grammar errors they make hence, strive to correct them and enhance their literacy skills. Analyzing and correcting errors among students should therefore be adopted as a process to motivate encourage, and ensure the students develop the right perception and attitude towards learning a second language. This can keep the students interested in the language encouraging them to learn from error corrections (Mishra, 2005).
Conversely, the relationship between students’ knowledgeable skills in a second language across various environments can enhance their literacy skills whether at home, in the neighborhood community with their friends or at work and in the classrooms. Eventually, the students can develop measures able to identify viable approaches in enhancing the learning process. More so, the educators can determine and develop environments they believe encourage the students to avoid making the grammar errors. The environments should however advocate for error correction. Thus, the ‘third space’ environments should boost the student’s confidence and positive attitudes towards error correction. This is because the learners acquiring literacy skills at home, school, and community with family and peer members can be encouraged to identify and correct grammar errors while learning a second language (Moje, Ciechanowski, Kramer, Ellis, Carrillo & Callazo, 2004).
Lastly, educators should develop diverse and valid strategies of correcting grammar errors. Ibarrola asserts that, students can also develop personalized strategies of correcting their grammar mistakes. For example, students seeking to learn English as a second language can identify common cultural aspects between English and their native lingo. This strategy can be ineffective and inefficient towards the students’ efforts in learning English as the tow languages differ in various aspects. These aspects include the languages deriving different meanings from similar phrases or pronunciations from the same texts or words. Consequently, the students’ abilities to learn the second language are thwarted due to the numerous grammar errors they continue to make consistently without an educator analyzing and correcting them. Thus, the strategy of self-correction should not be encouraged in the process of teaching and learning a second language as can be ineffective and invalid. Instead, teachers should advocate for reformulation as educators are empowered and enabled to correct grammar errors committed by the students. Consequently, the process of learning teaching and learning a second language can be enhanced improving literacy skills among the learners (Ibarrola, 2009).
Ultimately, the main goal of learning
a second language is to acquire literacy skills. These skills involve writing,
reading, and speaking fluently in the second language with or with minimal
grammar errors. The main issue in learning a second language is developing the
right mentality and attitude towards the lingo and process. Both teachers and
learners should address these issues as they influence each other’s perceptions
and values. Consequently, the teachers should formulate and implement viable
teaching measures ensuring the learners acquire literacy skills in the second
language. These measures should include engaging in error analysis and
correction in order to improve the students’ abilities to read and write. Thus,
error corrections should be embraced in teaching and learning a second
language. Consequently, literacy skills among students can be enhanced ensuring
the students do not make grammar errors either in reading or writing further
improving their oral skills.
Aarnoutse, C., & Schellings, G. (2003). Learning Reading Strategies by Triggering Reading Motivation. Educational Studies, 29(1), 387-409.
Archambault, I., Eccles, J. S., & Vida, M. N. (2010). Ability Self-Concepts and Subjective Value in Literacy: Joint Trajectories from Grades 1 through 12. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 804–816.
Carlisle, J. F. (2010). Effects of Instruction in Morphological Awareness on Literacy Achievement: An Integrative Review. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(4), 464–487.
Coskun, F. (2010). A Classroom Research Study on Oral Error Correction. Humanizing Language Teaching Magazine, 12(3), 1-12.
Dymoke, S., & Hughes, J. (2009). Using a Poetry Wiki: How can the Medium Support Pre-Service Teachers of English in their Professional Learning about Writing Poetry and Teaching Poetry Writing in a Digital Age? English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 8(3), 91–106.
Enright, K. A. (2011). Language and Literacy for a New Mainstream. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 80–118.
Ferris, D. (2006). Feedback in Second Language Writing. USA, Cambridge University Press.
Ibarrola, A. (2009). Reformulation and Self-Correction: Testing the Validity of Correction Strategies in the Classroom. Revista Española de Linguistic Aplicada, 22(1), 189-215.
Ivanic, R. (2004). Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write. Language and Education, 18(1), 220- 245.
Mishra, K. (2005). Correction of errors in English: a training course for the teachers of English as a Second Language. New Delhi, Oscar Publications.
Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Callazo, T. (2004). Working toward a Third Space in Content Area Literacy: An Examination of Everyday Funds of Knowledge and Discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38-70.