The book of John 21: 1-25 is a typical description of the author over his meeting with Jesus Christ after resurrection together with the other disciples. This paper employs an exclusive textual analysis in defining the role of Jesus as an agent of change and guiding. The paper will examine the book looking at John’s perception over Jesus’ leadership. The analysis also entails an examination from John’s standpoint on Jesus’ role as an agent of change and guide. Further, the paper shall compare perspectives between social theories and leadership models.
Table of Contents
- Inner Texture Analysis
- Repetitive-Progressive Texture
- Opening-Middle-Closing Texture
- Narrational texture and Pattern
- Argumentative texture and pattern
Jesus: An Agent of Change and Guiding
- Leadership as love:
- Leadership as Restorative Preparation:
- Leadership as Nurturing of Commitment:
- Johannine Model of Leadership
- Christian Leadership in Today’s Society
Inner Texture study
Robbins (1996, p. 3) pioneered an approach called socio- rhetorical criticism and used is as a comprehensive approach of the theory. This approach gives the reader the liberty to utilize various ways of interpreting the text. In this paper, we shall focus on the internal texture of the question. Robbins recommended that this process involves examining words that keep recurring, the introductions and endings, manner of speech, a certain manner of presenting information and personal connection to the text.
Poon (2006, p. 50) noticed that the account at John 21: 1-25 seems to contain narrative units; the Introduction: John 21:1-14, Body: John 21:15-19; and the Conclusion: John 21:20-25). Each of these starts with a narratives explanation. . John 21’s first account is in the first person voice from start to finish. In the first stanza, he creates a mental picture of Jesus meting with his disciples. The second part with preparers the reader to Jesus dealings with Peter. The conclusion in verse 19 contains Jesus’ official speech. In the third unit the narrator’ acknowledges Jesus’ ruling over him and he reminds readers of his authorship of the bible book.
We begin the approach mentioned above by examining of the recurring and progressive texture in our passage (John 1: 1-25). The section peers into the patterns coming out in the course of the topic.
|Jesus||Lord||Simon Peter/Peter||Disciples||Do You Love Me||You know I love you||Feed my sheep||Follow me|
In examining this repetitive nature, the characters that stand out are Jesus, Peter, and disciples. The most significant objects have been repeated throughout the text. “Do you love me” and “You know I love you” as well as “feed my sheep/lambs” are among the most constant phrases.
This pattern of John 21(emerge throughout the text. This includes progressive patterns of the three characters; peter, Jesus and John. You can notice this progression in the table above.. Jesus’ name is repeated seventeen times: nine times in the opening words, three times in the main body and five times in the closing phrases. The disciples were less significant in the context. Peter was more important in this situation as his name is mentioned 13 times in the text; he could be considered as the second most important figure.
The conversation between Jesus and Peter was the first to take place after Peter denied him. . This may have reflected nervousness clouding the reunion. Mathew Henry (1994, para. 6) has reasoned that the fact that Jesus did not address Peter with his second name showed that h doubted the need for Peter to have a name however, the author used this surname , clearing all such speculations. This indicated legitimacy of renewed call.
Peter determined to get back to fishing; a sign of hopelessness (Guthrie, et al., 1970, p. 966). Before his call to discipleship by Jesus, Peter had voluntarily followed Jesus without inquiring as an indication his faith. Resolving to go back to fishing indicated he considered his three year career as waste .Even after the miraculous catch; Peter could not attach the miracle with Jesus, indicating his hopeless attitude. . Jesus corrected this viewpoint and it was effective, as Peter ran on water to meet him .this reflected the power of their bond
(Poon, 2006, p. 54).
Concluding from the preceding chapter of John, Jesus call for Peter for three times tied with his denial of Jesus three times. Even so, Jesus showed Peter leadership skills. He did not get annoyed, but showed Peter the way to follow. Jesus also impressed the weight of the task of tending the sheep, by calling him three times. Such resolution and the call for pledge may have been triggered by the denial of Jesus and the straying of followers to fishing (Kostenberger, 2004, p. 597).
John 21: 1-25 seems to be divided into three parts. In the starting unit, John explains how Jesus met the disciples after resurrection. The element could be divided into 6 verses. The first part explains Jesus coming upon the disciples, the second is a discourse between Jesus, and all the disciples during the fishing, followed by the dialogue before their recognition of the Lord, identification of Jesus, and then the accounting of scene onto dry land. The conclusion of the piece entails the conversation that ensued and him having breakfast with the disciples.
The body is divided into three parts. The opening is a conversation between Jesus and Peter. The second part shows Jesus commanding Peter to action. The concluding part emphasizes Jesus call to Peter to follow him.
The conclusion of John 21 can also be divided into three sections. Verse 20 turns the conversation to John’s destiny and the urgency for Peter to follow Jesus. The middle part is merged with the closing part as the author reveals himself.
Narration texture and model
According to Poon (2006, p. 57), the narrative format used studies the scenes within the passage, the people speaking, the narrative progression, and the plot used. The narrator introduces each of the three scenes. Scene 1 depicts Jesus and his disciples at the sea of Tiberias. It contains the move to go back fishing and the breakfast they had together. Scene 2 is simply about Jesus and Peter while scene 3 depicts Peter, Jesus and John talking about John.
The “voices” used are for: Jesus’, narrator’s, Peter’s and the other six disciples. In Scene 1 is over the narrator describes Jesus 3rd meeting with the disciples after the resurrection. The voice of the narrator comes in and out of the script. Jesus plays the major role while Peter rules over the following scene. The narrator introduces the people mentioned in scene 2. The main issue is Jesus repetitiveness, signifying peters healing (Spencer, 65). A very momentous subject in this scene was Jesus predictive utterance over Peter’s destiny (martyrdom) (Rudolf, 1964, p. 13-14). The final scene is the narrator’s acknowledgment of his authorship and clarification of mistaken rumors (Poon, 2006, p. 57).
Challenging texture and pattern
The author has indicated several conversations as where Jesus asks and peter responds. It also has details of commands Jesus sets as conditions of loving him. John’s focal point on Jesus in this passage was Jesus as a means of change and as a guider (Corne, 2006, p. 41-42). Jesus changes the minds of those who had gone back to fishing. His demonstrates leadership traits by commissioning the disciples to take responsibility and the assignment of headship Peter. He requires Peter to be liable to the sheep
The argumentative points used are ; Questions, answers, instructions, exclamation, statement issuance, visionary utterances, repeating the original question. The parties involved in this argumentative pattern are Peter, disciples, Jesus, Peter alone and John the speaker.
Jesus: An Agent of transformation and Guiding
In summary of the internal texture of John 21: 1-25, several facts stood out, significant in examining Jesus Leadership personality. Morris (1971, p. 862) noted that regardless of the discouragement faced by Peter and the disciples, , Jesus took them back to the right path. The restoration of Peter meant his re-commissioning. From the time off his renewed call, Peter realized that leadership such as Jesus’ must be based on love. He also learnt that it comes with a cost (Kostenberger, 2004, p. 598-599).
Apart from the scrutiny, of John’s perception and conceptualization of leadership, some key ideology, and themes seem to emerge as shown below. They portray Jesus as a mediator of transformation and guiding.
The role of love in leadership:
The core concepts that come out are love and leadership. John’s description of the leadership of Jesus approach portrays heavenly love extending to his flock. Jesus questions peters’ love for him, and it is only when Peter assures him of such, is he given responsibilities. Love has been placed as clause for headship. Jesus showed love by re-commission of Peter instead of keeping grudges. Furthermore, , Jesus expression of love is seen when he commissions Peter to tend his sheep showing the relationship between love and leadership. (Minear, 1983, p). Jesus implied that tending for the flock was the only means of proving peter’s love to him.
Patterson’s servant leadership models (Patterson, 2003, p. 10), Winston’s extension of Patterson’s model are amongst the leadership theories that relate honorable love to leadership (Winston, 2003, p. 2). Patterson model states that the origin of servant leadership is an “agape” love (Swanson, 26). Explaining further, Winston wrote, “Agape,” as a moral love, that should also exist among the workplace, churches and the world in general (Winston, 2002, p. 719). Within the framework of religious leadership theory, Louis Fry maintained that that spiritual leadership includes essential incentive, demonstrated through faith/hope and altruistic love (Fry, 2003, p. 719). He continued to say that love has power of rooting out bad traits like arrogance, anger, and fear. Quinn asserted that love can be lenient and tolerant if it goes beyond the borders of leadership. He pointed out that love can be forceful and call others to moral responsibility. (Quinn, 2004, p. 186). In the context of John 21: 1-25, Jesus emphasized on compassionate and assertive love, which is a remedy over Peters’ denial and betrayal.
Leadership as Restorative training:
Prior to the meeting with the Lord, the disciples were fearful, worried, felt as failures guilty, angry and jealous. . The disciples were eagerly waiting for their restoration (Spencer, p. 65). The disciples in the preceding chapter had encountered Jesus yet went back to fishing, and even when he appears to them, they could not identify him. It seems the disciples were confused. . Jesus started out with the source this attitude, who was, Peter, demonstrating that doors for restoration were unlocked for everyone. Bruce (1983, p. 405) argues that the restoration of the disciples prepared them for future ministry.
Leadership as a restorative training drives the leaders’ role as mentors and mounting followers. According to Stanley and Clinton (1992, p. 40), leaders have a task of helping their followers see their potential. Jesus set the stage for emulation. Nouwen (1974, p. 36), professed restoration as being there for the weak and helping the fallen to rise up.
Leadership as Nurturing of Commitment:
Hersey (2004, p. 43-48) defined spiritual leadership the readiness to obey by the followers. Dedication and wiliness are among the most fundamental elements of such leadership. In restorative preparation, a leader should nature such values in his followers. Jesus knew what was ahead of them. He knew that without commitment, they were likely to give up. He thus repeated his statements based on his previous experience with Peter of assurance and underperformance. Burns (1978, p. 4), focusing on the call for emphasized loyalty wrote “The transforming leader looks for possible motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower.” The meeting between Jesus and Peter was a headstrong helped Peter decide whether he wanted to follow Jesus or not.
Johns; Model of Leadership
John (John 21: 1-25) presents Jesus leadership point of view that aims at changing and guiding his followers to the right course of life. Several times Jesus was conscious of what he was asking the disciples to embark on. He founded his teachings on love. . John satisfactorily laid out the love gospel of Jesus for the followers. He wanted everyone to love each other .The Agape love provided the vigor and the foundation for the three aspects of Jesus’ leadership as drawn from Blumberg and Pringle’s 3-dimensional interactive work performance theory. by means of restoration groundwork, leaders are able to develop performing competence, facilitate readiness of performing; provide an opportunity to execute (Blumberg & Pringle, 1982, p. 565).
The elements work together to improved work presentation of the followers. The elements suggest force, direction, and determination that must be directed in the right course in an appropriate intensity level continuing over time (Ivancevich, et al., 2005, p. 138). John’s leadership model of agape love combined with competence, opening and wiliness to perform can provide the necessary incentive for guiding presentation.
John’s leadership point of view as portrayed by Jesus would resound authorial audience since it focused on restoration, call to follow despite the conditions, ethical and religious issues and understanding the reason motivating the beliefs of people. The peak of the gospel of John provides an effective force for the community and point of re-entry for the people who had doubts. Nevertheless, it is not a meaningless re-entry. Spencer states “Reconciliation is dependent upon their readiness to accept the responsibilities of discipleship” (Spencer, 1999, p. 65).
Christian Leadership in Today’s world
Christian leaders should base their teachings on such foundations discussed in this paper. Jesus was clear from our passage on the real meaning of leadership of love. Christian leaders should put into practice holistic love if they want to restore lost sheep. The society is filled of desperate people who have had to deal with failures, misplacement, disappointments, and broken confidence among other societal vices. A leader should show fulsome commitment, through love, care, and hope to his followers. . No matter what an individual has gone through, a leader has a duty of restoring the hope of the person and restoring the person. For a complete spiritual health leaders need to follow the example set by Jesus.
Agape love is the most indispensable requirement for every Christian head. The love should be demonstrated by elements of impetus, direction, and concentration. Jesus leadership of love, care, course, force, and promise should the basis of teachings for all Christian leaders.
Bruce, J. (1983). The Gospel of John. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdsman.
Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Fry, L. (2003). “Toward a Theory of Spiritual Leadership,” The Leadership Quarterly 14(6).
Guthrie, D., et al., eds., (1970). The New Bible Commentary, 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdsmans.
Hersey, P. (2004). The Situational Leader. Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies.
Ivancevich, J., Konopaske, R. & Matteson, M. (2005). Organizational Behavior and Management, 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kostenberger, A. (2004). “John,” in Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, ed. Robert W. Yarbrough and Robert H. Stein Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.
Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible, Electronic ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994), s.v. ‘John 21, verses 15-19’.
Minear, P. (1983). “The Original Functions of John 21,” Journal of Biblical Literature 102(1).
Morris, L. (1971). The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdsmans.
Nouwen, H. (1974). Out of Solitude. Notre Dame, IN: Ava Maria Press.
Patterson, K. (2003). “Servant Leadership: A Theoretical Model,” Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(2).
Poon, R. (2006). John 21: A Johannine Model of Leadership. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 1(1), p. 49-70.
Quinn, R. (2004). Building the bridge as you walk on it: a guide for leading change. London, UK: Jossey-Bass.
Robbins, V. (1996). Exploring the Texture of Texts: A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press.
Rudolf, B. (1964). The Gospel of John: A Commentary, trans. G.R. Beasley-Murray, R. W. N. Hoare, and J. K. Riches. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, p. 713-14.
Spencer, P. (1999). Narrative Echoes in John 21: Intertextual Interpretation and Intratextual Connection.
Stanley, P. & Clinton, R. (1992). Connecting: The Mentoring Relationships You Need to Succeed in Life. Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress.
Winston, B. (2002). Be a Leader for God’s Sake. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University.
Winston, B. (2003). Extending Patterson’s Servant Leadership Model: Coming Full Circle: paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, October 16 2003.