Public Administration Sample on Comprehensive Test

Comprehensive Test

  1. Identify three leadership competencies. Explain.

Leadership competencies involve having superior skills that contribute to excellent performance in organizations. Various models exist to depict leadership competencies, but the three main leadership competencies include personal, interpersonal, and leading teams. Personal leadership entails development of intelligence to drive a personal mission; being ethical and responsible for one’s responsibilities at a personal level; and being aware of one’s strengths, as well as limitations. Interpersonal leadership involves developing effective communication skills; building relations and maintaining relevant skills that empower others; and having influence and motivating skills, which can convince others to do what is necessary. According to Confucius, a leader who does not appreciate words cannot understand his people. Leading teams and managing organizations incorporates facilitation of teams to articulate a process; comprehending organizations and their processes; and exhibiting awareness and transparency to all employees who come from different background.

  • How does our responsibility as professionals in a democracy differ from our responsibilities as citizens?

Professionals play a critical role in any society. They are expected to uphold and expand public confidence through demonstrating the highest level of integrity. In a democracy, professionals should provide their services objectively without discrimination. They are supposed to display non-partisanship and fairness when carrying out their duties in the public sphere. Honesty is fundamental in any profession, as it assist in solving problems in society. Honesty includes accepting to take responsibility for hurting other people. Most professionals are public servants; hence, they should demonstrate a strong commitment towards ethics and values.  In contrast, citizens in every democracy need participation, respect, and patient. Citizens belong to a particular country legally, thus, they owe allegiance to their countries (Raymond, 2011). Their responsibilities include obeying the law; taking responsibility for themselves and their families; voting in elections; and assisting each other in the community.

  • What is meant by the common good?

In philosophy, a common good involves something that is usually shared by all, thus, should benefit the whole society. Common goods include security, road network, and justice. Common good has always been associated with a vibrant, unselfish community. The notion of common good asserts that people should live together as citizens who are entrenched in social relationships. In political theory that is supported by republicanism, a common good can only be attained through citizens’ participation. The common good focuses on ways in which freedom, sovereignty, and self-government are attained through active involvement of individuals in politics. Social obligations also allow private ownership to have a say in common good, since the state cannot satisfy citizens with all goods and services. However, it is quite difficult for private owners to balance their objectives of earning profits and managing the common good.

  •  Talk about moral courage

Moral courage involves individual’s willingness to talk about, or do what is deemed right, despite the urge to act contrary to the right way. According to Dupree (2014), Abraham Lincoln once uttered that you can support a leader when he has done something correctly, or stick to him when he is still right, but you should leave him once he is wrong. Dupree is urging the American people to utilize moral courage to tell their leaders that their actions are not in their best interest. The path towards moral courage begins from having an ethical challenge to the longing to act, before deciding to act. The urge to act within moral courage is driven by personal factors, which depend on social forces that include social pressure, supposed rewards or punishments, and other related factors (Sekerka & Bagozzi, 2007). Once the desire is there, individuals are capable of revealing their desire to act.

  • Identify the program and its objectives. Explain what happened as a result of the evaluation.

A program involves planned sequence of events that aim at making the future more attractive than present. Program objectives illustrate a measure of accountability. One of the objectives of developing a program in public administration is to create awareness on the side of the political forces that form public policy. Programs also assist in formulating analytical skills, managerial proficiency, and communication skills, which can be applied directly to specific areas of public administration. Once the program objectives are developed, the program manager should monitor the progress to guarantee that the objectives are achieved. Public sectors should conduct program evaluation to provide information required to keep the program running, and to strengthen its efficiency. Evaluation should begin during the early stages of program to describe what the program entails. The final results of evaluation are that public administrators can detect the problems in the program, in addition to replicate the outcomes of the program.

6.   Identify the five most important public management challenges of the 21st century.

Public management has encountered development in the last two decades, which include bureaucracy and processes, efficient management, and leadership with outcomes. However, the 21st century has come with numerous challenges, which have threatened to tear the public sector into small pieces (units) in a process dubbed fragmentation. One of the challenges is endeavor to deliver efficient public service amid a financial constrained environment. Infrastructure, as well as asset management has become a challenge in sustaining a fiscal position in the economy. The public sector had undergone a fundamental shift in terms of effectiveness, priorities, and expectations. State governments have been challenged to improve their public sector by innovating new ways, which they replicate from the private sector. Local governments are having a rough time in trying to balance their productivity with efficiency and governance. The issue of accountability is also a major challenge that the public management is endeavoring to balance, as new technology chips in. The complex management structures call for utmost accountability.

7.  What the different between private sector and public sector?

A private sector usually involves an organization that is not owned, or run, by the government. Organizations owned by individuals belong to the private sector. On the other hand, a public sector can be termed as an organization that is owned and run by the government. The management of private sector follows a horizontal structure while public sector takes a vertical structure, which is bureaucratic. The ultimate goal of a private sector is to maximize the shareholders’ interests while in the public sectors; the crucial goal is to enhance the collective value. Private sector employees value economic rewards quite highly, and would prefer to be motivated through monetary rewards. On the other side, public sector employees focus on satisfying the societal need, rather than their personal interests. They believe in transparency, and are committed to the accountability.


Dupree, W. (2014, August 4). DUPREE: The absence of moral courage. The Washington Times, Opinion. Retrieved on 6 August 2014 from

Raymond, T. (2014). Rights and responsibilities of citizens: fourth grade social science lesson, activities, discussion questions and quiz. HomeSchool Brew Press.

Sekerka, L. E., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2007). Moral courage in the workplace: Moving to and from the desire and decision to act. Business Ethics: A European Review, 16(2), 132-149.