Political Science Sample Paper on Political Economy

Political economy

The desire by different individuals in Muslim states to gain political mileage is largely derived from their ability to use tribal and religious affiliation to satisfy their political desires. In Gulf States for instance these elements play an essential role in the determination of the political direction. Islamic religion played an essential role in the determination of the type of ideologies that different societies were expected to adopt while tribalism was used in determining the technique of allocating resources. While agreeing with these assertions, Behdad (775) argues that tribalism has contributed to the development of reformist movements in different Gulf States that are struggling to restore some form of order in the distribution of economic resources. Their objective is to use the teachings of Islam that define the ideological principles of different countries as the guiding principle in the realization of equitable distribution of resources. This in the view of Behdad (777) is the only way through which equitable economic growth can be realized in Gulf States.

One way through which societies and governments can ensure effective development of their economies according to Fligstein (173) is by ensuring that there are organizational structures which are fashioned through attempts of reducing the impact of cognitive and informational restrictions. This is the only way through which different markets within societies can be understood in relation to their economic dynamics. In addition, organizational structures help addressing external matters affecting their operations (Fligstein 176). For firms to succeed in their endeavors of realizing their organizational goals and objectives, it is important they embrace different elements that define global economics such as globalization. This according to (Fligstein 193) provides a means of connection while increasing trade between different companies. It is also a way through which firms can expand their market and customer base. Despite the advantages, there will also be need to reorganize the structures in ways that meet the demands of the market. Any form of incongruence may lead to a possible collapse of the company (Fligstein 193).

            While globalization is an essential aspect in the improvement of business initiatives, (Fligstein 207) argues that it has introduced deindustrialization initiatives. These have replaced human workforce with technological machinery that is not only effective but also efficient in the production process. Globalization may be contribution to rapid rise in trade but also in high levels of unemployment due to mechanization of most business operations (Fligstein 209). Prior to globalization there were other ideologies that defined the economies of different European countries. Ideologies such as socialism defined the structures that were to be used in the development of the political economy. Through such systems there were planned produced under the leadership of the state. Other ideologies such as fascism contributed to the high levels of spending on public and military projects with low levels of economic gain (Roman 2-3).  Fascism and Nazism were ideologies that were largely oppressive and directed towards war and armament objectives. Inasmuch as the Nazi leadership in Germany attempted to create a unified Germany, their expansionist ideologies characterized by belligerent attacks against other states and races contributed to its downfall. Nazism was perceived as an isolationist approach towards the development of effective political and economic systems (Barkai 11). The totalitarian system of government among the Nazi exacerbated the situation in Germany.

            While compared to the economic system in Germany, Aharoni (128) argues that the State of Israel presented a different ideological approach to the improvement of its economy. In the earlier years after its establishment Israel operated on a centralized economy where political parties and government controlled most of the economic resources. These parties were in charge of allocation of resources and this led to inequality. However, with the democratization of the political structures and liberalization of economic structures, Israel began a gradual process of improving its economy and position on the international market.

            According to Blank (11) Russia under Putin has been able to embrace different approaches towards economic growth. This has been through the adoption of the best economic practices such as high dependence on agriculture as was during the years of the Soviet Union. However, the country has also been engaged in additional economic activities such as processing. Despite these improvements the country experiences high level of corruption considering that about 50% of gross domestic product is lost in corrupt deals (Blank 13). One major difference between the economy of Kuwait and that of Russia is that the former encourages political participation by different stakeholders. These stakeholders include oil organizations, and other energy regulatory authorities whose impact in the polit5cal and economic processes can be used in the definition of the most appropriate strategies for organizational growth. In addition, the government of Kuwait also seeks expert advice from different countries and experts in specific areas of improvement.  Political changes in Kuwait have been necessitated by the leadership of the three ruling dynasties in the country. Families such as Al Sabah of Kuwait, Al Khalifah of Bahrain and Al Thani of Qatar are synonymous with organizations which develop and implement polices while at the same time drowning salaries from their activities on behalf of the government.

            Austria operates on one of the most effective corporate structures due to the existence of laws that allow different players to participate in the exchange process to minimize the possibility of coercion. The government has the role of protection voluntary exchange procedures. This is through the creation of laws that enhance competition, generation of profits and the development of property rights. Other than the corporate structure the government in Austria also has a role in the protection of the country’s political economy by enhancing openness and autonomy in political deliberations.  Unlike Austria, privatization has characterized the operations of the totalitarian regime in Jordan. This has led to the development of policies that have affected the long term process of institutional change. the decision by the state to privatize is often informed by the development of unequal deals between the government and the private sector make the latter less significant in relation to the  decision making process on matters related to the economy.

            Saudi Arabia’s political economy is primarily defined by its operations and investments in the oil industry. The country is however in the process of developing alternative economic endeavors that could help in the development of long-term policies to ensure sustainable economic practices such as the promotion of agriculture and the creation of modern infrastructure to support these economic initiatives. 

Works Cited

Aharoni, Y. “The Changing Political Economy of Israel. American Academy of Political and

social Science, pp. 127-146, 1998

Barkai, A. Nazi Economics: Ideology, Theory and Policy. Yale University Press, 1990

Behdad, S. “A Disputed Utopia: Islamic Economics in Revolutionary Iran.” Comparative Studies

in Society and History, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1994. pp, 775-777

Blank, S. Politics and Economics in Putin’s Russia. U.S Army War College, 2013

Fligstein N. “Chapter 9, Globalization.” The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist Societies

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Capitalist Societies

Fligstein N. “Chapter 9, Globalization.” The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of

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Niblock, T. The Political Economy of Saudi Arabia. Routledge: London and New York  

Representative Government in Kuwait

Roman, K. Corporate Model. 

Roman, K. The Economics of Fascism: the Cases of Italy and Germany. 

The Bases of “Traditional” Politics: Islam and Tribalism

The Ruling Families in Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar

The State of the Economy in Jordan