Nursing Research Paper on Why is Nanotechnology Important in Medicine

Why is nanotechnology important in medicine?

Introduction

            This study seeks to find out the significance of nanotechnology in medicine. The hypothesis of this study is that nanotechnology is a significant technique in the field of medicine. Nanotechnology refers to the application of nano –particles in medicine (Putheti, Okigbo, Sai advanapu, & Chavanpatil, 28). It employs the use of nano-robots for cellar level change. Significant benefits have been felt in employing this technique in medicine (Ramachandran, & Shanmughavel, 56). This comes with many possibilities such as drug delivery, and therapy techniques. This study will apply secondary methods of data collection. Recommendations are given in relation to the analysis and discussion of the study.

Thesis

Nanotechnology is a beneficial technique in the field of medicine.

Objectives

            There main objectives of carrying out the research include finding out the benefits of the technology in medicine, analyze how this technique can be applied, study the progress made in relation to medicine. The study also seeks to find out the limitation of this technique, explore the opportunities this technology has in medicine and identify prevailing loopholes in the previous studies.

Research questions

            The major questions this study seeks to answer include:

  1. What is nanotechnology?
  2. How is it applied in the field of medicine?
  3. What are the challenges in its application?
  4. What are the benefits of this technology?
  5. What are the weaknesses of this technology?
  6. What are other options to this technology in medicine?

Literature review

Background of the topic of study

            Nanotechnology has some exciting possibilities ever imagined (Farokhzad & Langer, 1458). These possibilities come with various elements of testing and implementation. It employs the use of nano-particles and various researches using nano-robots. These help to restore cellular level, which is also referred to as nano-medicine. The application of nano-technology in medicine is to revolutionize the detection of diseases and treatment of damaged body parts of the human beings (Nie et al, 68). This technique manipulates atoms and molecules to come up with varied and new materials. This technique is expected to transform the delivery of drugs, diagnostics of diseases and gene therapy, among many clinical applications. This is expected to save many lives by coming up with health solutions.

            These predictions hold so much hope for the future research (Drabu, Khatri, Babu, & Verma, 172). This is through great innovations in the field of nano-technology and in future developments. There is an explosion of studies therefore in the medical applications of this technology. The new developments are expected to employ nano-materials in the field.  There is however, considerable challenges related to this research. This is in relation to the materials and the tools used. The challenges also touch on the cost and the timescales in carrying out the research. There is also the problem of securing the confidence of the public in assuring them of the safety of the materials. This is so far not clear on how it is going to be done. This security is significant in managing the over-exaggeration of the concerns related to this study.

Benefits of the topic in the field of medicine

One of the uses of this technique is in the delivery of drugs. This technique is applied in the heating, lighting and other elements to given body cells. Particles are directed to specific cells affected by diseases. This then allows for direct treatment of the cells. The technique reduces more harm to the cells. It also helps in the early detection of the disease within the body. For instance, nano-particles distribute chemotherapy drugs to the cancer cells (Nie et al, 58). Presently, there are various tests under development, which target distribution of the chemotherapy drugs to the patients. These tests are yet to be approved. Nano-sponges absorb toxins and eradicate them from the blood flow. Nano-sponges are polymer particles, which are covered with red blood cells film the membrane freely, allow the nano-particles to move in the bloodstream and exert a pull on the toxins (Kumar, 26). Approaches to produce sound waves, which are powerful and tightly focused, have been demonstrated. This is useful in the non-invasive surgery.  Lens covered with carbon nano-tubes are employed. They alter light from the laser to the sound waves. This technique is expected to blast tumors and other diseases without affecting the healthy cells. By employing the bismuth nano-particles, treatment of cancer will be better. The particles are to be used in radiation therapy on cancer tumors. These particles are expected to reduce the tumor by around 90%. PEG-HCC, polyethylene glycol-hydrophilic carbon clusters have higher attraction to free carbons than the body proteins (Cui, Wei, Park & Lieber, 1290). They can be used therefore in the reduction of the harmful free radicals especially after brain injury. Breast cancer tumors are also to be destroyed (Hu, 12487). This is expected to be through the application of heat therapy. The nano-tubes will be attached to the antibodies. These are attracted to the proteins made in a given type of cancer cell in the breast. The nano-tubes then accumulate in the tumor. It then absorbs the infrared light from the laser and produces heat, which incinerates the growth.

Previous studies related to the research

Present studies illustrate that gelatin nano-particles can be employed in the delivery of drugs to the damaged tissues in the brain (Ramachandran & Shanmughavel, 58). Other studies also use these particles in the delivery of the vaccinations. They protect the vaccines by giving the vaccinations extra time to activate stronger immune reactions. Other studies under development include the application of a method to release insulin, which applies a sponge-like matrix. This matrix has insulin and nano-capsules with enzymes. The glucose level is made to rise. This increases the nano-capsules hydrogen ions releases. This binds with the fibers hence, makes up the matrix. The fibers are positively charged with the hydrogen ions hence repel each other and create openings for the matrix, which releases the insulin. There are developments to make a nano-particle, which can be orally taken. This is to pass through the intestines lining to the blood. This will allow the drugs taken through vaccinations to be easily taken orally (Sahoo, Parveen & panda, 21). There are other developments to defeat viruses through the nano-particles. Through the nano-particles, enzymes are released from the nano-particles. These prevent more production of the virus molecules to the bloodstream of the patients (Farokhzard, & Langer 1247-8).

Nano-tubes implanted in a sensor gel to be used to control the nitric oxide level in the blood. This is injected under the skin. The nitric oxide level is significant as it shows inflammation. This further allows easier control of the inflammatory diseases (Navalakhe & Nandedkar, 160). This test has passed the testing stage. Sensors are being developed to detect minimum levels of cancer cells in the body. This is approximated to be around five cells in a milliliter of blood sample. Researchers are to develop sheets of grapheme oxide to attach molecules of antibody. These are to be attached to the cancer cells. The cells are then to be tagged with fluorescent molecules to easily identify the cells in a microscope. Infectious diseases are to be easily diagnosed in their early stages. The nano-particles are to be connected to the molecules in the blood. This is to show the beginning of an infection (Putheti et al, 29). Through Raman scattering, the particles improve the signal, thereby allowing identification of the molecules, carrying the diseases, at an early stage.

Developments are underway for the detection of the kidney damage. The approach employs gold nano-rods. These are to be attached to the protein produced by the destroyed kidneys. When the attachment is complete, the color of the rod is to change. This is expected to be a quick test and fair in price. Nano-crystalline silver is among the early uses in nano-medicine. This is an antimicrobial agents used to treat wounds

Methodology

Methods of data collection

            The chosen methods of data collection include interviews, which will also incorporate discussions. Secondary sources of data will also be employed. This comprise of peer-reviewed journals, books, and electronic articles.

Number of participants

            There will be approximately 100 participants. They will be randomly chosen from a list of the volunteers. An advertisement will be made in all the health and research institutions. The volunteers must be high profile technicians, medical engineers, and professional doctors. They will be requested to personally share their experience in this field before they are allowed to participate. Thereafter, an oral and a written consent will be required from them. .

Criterion of analyzing data

Qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis will be employed. This will guarantee that complete information is gathered and there is no loophole in the research.

Tentative timeline

Since there will be both qualitative and quantitative analysis, the timeline for analysis may take longer than two months. In general, the study will carry out pilot study, which is expected to take more than one month. This period will also cover the time for requesting the relevant official documents to carry on the research. The participants will be randomly chosen from the list of volunteers. Relevant documents will be acquired during this period. This incorporates written and oral consent from the respondents and government records.

Data collection is to take around three months. This process entails going through all the relevant records on nanotechnology in medicine. Internet sources will have to be included. Interviews are to be incorporated in the next phase, which may take one month. Data analysis is to take around three months. Statisticians in the government offices will be requested to participate too. Release of the findings and recommendations will take place in the next one month. This period will cover any other activities related to the research.

Findings

            The expected results are to relate positively with the hypothesis. The results are to show that nano-technology is a significant technology in the field of medicine. From the studies, it has been realized that various research are underway to help in the delivery of drugs to the brain injured tissues in the brain, and activation of stronger immune reactions. Other studies are applying a method to release insulin, which is to help some pass through the intestines lining to the blood. This will allow the drugs taken through vaccinations to be taken easily orally. There are other developments to defeat viruses through the nano-particles. Some other research is concentrated to control the inflammatory diseases. Sensors are being developed to detect minimum levels of cancer cells in the body. This is approximated to be around five cells in a milliliter of blood sample. This will facilitate easier diagnosis of infectious diseases in their early stages. Developments are underway for the detection of the kidney damage. The approach is expected to easily detect any damages in the kidney. This test is expected to be fair in price.

Limitation of Previous studies

There are many researches under progress. Some are yet to undergo testing while others are yet to be approved. This makes is difficult to be tested on human beings.  The public have been made to believe that by using nano-sized materials makes the technique dangerous. The public needs to realize that since the creation of earth; nano-particles have been used in various ways. There is the natural production of the volcanic ash. There are also the human by-products released from human activity such as soot and smoke. These have been present since the Stone Age period. Through investigation so far carried out, nano-particles have been accessible in the environment in greater levels than the ones to be developed. The developed ones are far less threatening than the ones presently sued even in house hold products such as cleaning agents and insecticides. They are therefore less poisonous than the drugs transmitted. The food business is presently leading in the growth of the nano-materials. In as much food containing these materials are small, this is to change in the near future. These materials have been applied in the low levels of sugar and fat. They however have not altered the taste or the freshness. They are used to improve the bio-availability of the food supplements.

Some are also skeptical over the toxicological results of this technology. This is because so many studies are carried to find out the benefits while they ignore the consequences (Whatmore, 68). One area of concern is the volume and mobility of the particles. These materials are said to be small enough to penetrate the cell membranes of the stomach to the brain and nuclei cells. Therefore, if they are dangerous, then more lives can be destroyed within a very short time. These materials are said to be soluble and persistent. Questions have been rising over the insoluble particles. Their insolubility nature implies that they cannot be broken down to be degraded or digested.

These particles have been found to be highly reactive. They have a higher surface area to volume ratio. Hence, they are likely to trigger unknown reactions, bond with toxins and giving them access to parts of the body, they previously could not flow to. The high surface area a condition referred to as particle aggregation is created. This is due to the physical and he chemical forces. The particular one joins to become bigger particles. These may go on becoming bigger and hence change the physiochemical features and their chemical reactivity. This phenomena increases the complexity of the behavior and toxicology of the materials (Whatmore, 68).  Hence, more studies need to ascertain the safety of these products before they gain access to the public.

Weaknesses of the research

            As these advances are to take years, the benefits may take unknown duration for the good of the public. Therefore, the time factor has not been realized in this study.

Recommendations

There are various opportunities for future research, for instance, the use of the nano -rods. Approval needs to be made in various researches for testing and verification among humans. From the above-mentioned risks, nano-technology seems to be dangerous to human health (Navalakhe & Nandedkar, 160). However, the medics emphasize its safety. Nevertheless, when a technology is developing faster, communication and public knowledge on its safety needs to accompany its advancements. This will be beneficial in highlighting its benefits and securing the public confidence. More research should be carried out to ascertain the danger they pose to the body organs when they accumulate. Further research must also ascertain the effect of inorganic metal oxides in the body.

Conclusion

            This study finds out the significance of nanotechnology in medicine. The hypothesis is that nanotechnology is a significant technique in the field of medicine. Nanotechnology employs the use of nano-robots for cellar level change. Significant benefits have been felt in employing this technique in medicine. This comes with many possibilities such as drug delivery, and therapy techniques. The main objectives of carrying out the research include finding out the benefits of the technology in medicine, analyze how this technique can be applied, study the progress made in relation to medicine. Among the limitations realized is that most of these studies are yet to be approved to realize benefits in the field of medicine. There are also many opportunities yet to be explored.  

Works Cited

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Farokhzad OC, Langer R. Nanomedicine: Developing smarter therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2006; 58:1456-9

Hu A, Yee GT, Lin W. Magnetically recoverable chiral catalysts immobilized on magnetite nanoparticles for asymmetric hydrogenation of aromatic ketones. J Am Chem Soc 2005;127:12486-7

Kumar CR. Nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R and D. Mater Today 2010;12:24-30

Navalakhe, R. M. & Nandedkar, T. D. Application of Nanotechnology in Biomedicine. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007; 45: 160-165.

Nie S, Xing Y, Kim GJ, Simons JW. Nanotechnology applications in cancer. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2007; 9:257-88

Putheti RR, Okigbo RN, Sai advanapu M, Chavanpatil S. Nanotechnology importance in the pharmaceutical industry. Afr J Pure Applied Chem 2008; 2:27-31

Ramachandran R, Shanmughavel P. Preparation and characterization of biopolymeric nanoparticles used in drug delivery. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2010; 47:56-59

Sahoo SK, Parveen S, Panda JJ. The present and future of nanotechnology in human health care. Nanomedicine: Nanomedicine 2007; 3:20-31

Whatmore RW. Nanotechnology-should we be worried? Nanotechnology Perceptions 2005; 1:67-77