Medical Science Paper sample on Bath salts effects and toxicity

Bath salts effects and toxicity

  The phrase bath salts refer to a specific category of designer drugs or drugs of abuse. This category of drugs is usually referred to as bath salts because they usually form powder substances that are white in color (Parvensky et al 209). To that extent, therefore, bath salt dugs revolve within and around the following substances methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV or MDPK) (Levounis & Abigail 171), methylone, mephedrone among others. These drug salts have a similar stimulating ability to the likes of cocaine. They also draw a number of similarities to chemical substances like Ecstasy. These drugs also have a number of street names; Vanilla sky, super coke, meph, white lightning and red dove are some of these names. Drug salts are usually introduced to the human body through various means, such as, sniffing, smoking and injection as well as consumed in combination with food substances (Emerging Trends 62). In the United States for instance, the abuse of bath salts has been on a drastic rise. This abuse is especially among the peer groups of the youths. Today, the abuse of this chemical substance ranks fifth after the traditional drugs like alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, ecstasy as well as cocaine. A predominant number of users tend to belong to the young male gender. Their rate of utility is also placed at least once in a week. Their mode of consumption is what actually makes them vulnerable to addiction and health related complications. This mode includes the inhalation of the chemical substance through the nostrils. This paper shall thus discuss the effects of bath salt as well as other salient issues of these chemical substances such as; their addictive nature, the symptoms of addiction as well as their diagnosis and treatment procedures among others.

                        Bath salts are addictive in nature. In as much as they are fairly new chemically abused substances and the fact that little substantial research has been done to determine their effects, their addictive nature should not be overlooked. Medical practitioners have ranked bath salts as having a similar addictive potential to the most common stimulants of cocaine and methamphetamines among others. In addition, due to their relatively devastating addictive nature, a number of federal states in the United States have prohibited the use of MDPV salt. The perpetual utility of this salt leads to violence, hallucination as well as paranoia within and among the users. Concisely, bath salts are both addictive and prohibited chemical substances in the United States of America (Van & Diane 142).

                        A number of risk factors that justify why individual are prone to the addictive nature of bath salts do exist. These risk and vulnerability factors can be classified into a number of categories. These categories are but not limited to, social factors, biological factors as well as the psychological factors. These factors render individuals vulnerable to the dependence disorder. It is important to point out that the rate at which addictions to drugs happens is the family milieu. To that extent, most scholars of substance abuse do give recognition to the genetic aspect of addiction. Depression, anxiety as well as mood swings are some of the mental turmoil and symptoms of the use of bath salts. In addition, the social possibility factors of bath salts, just like those of any other stimulant drug addiction as well as abuse revolves around; low living standards, the male gender, ages of between 18 years to 44 years old as well as a marital status that depicts unmarried. In addition, neglect parenting styles may also expose users to substance abuse. The prevention of the levels of vulnerability to the abuse of these substances includes; general guidance and counseling for drug abuse, keeping a busy schedule to avoid idleness as well as public advocacy and education on the effects of substance abuse on national media platforms. These are some of the ways and methods to prevent the vulnerability to the addiction of these substances (Goldberg 322).

                        The use of bath salts is accompanied by a number of signs and symptoms. By observing these symptoms from a close friend or relative may be a clear indicator that they are highly intoxicated in bath salts. The signs and symptoms include; high euphoria, high sexual stimulation, high levels of focus as well as high energy levels. These symptoms are usually evident within the first two to four hours after consuming drugs. The other general symptoms of the abuse of bath salts include; anxiety, a behavior that is jittery in nature, feeling of nausea, an increase in the rate of heart beats, general lack of sleep, which is sometimes referred to as insomnia, general lack of appetite, feelings of depression and consequently suicidal thoughts, panic attacks, general violent behavior among other signs and symptoms (Goldberg 37).

                        The emission of too much heat within the body as a result of consuming this product may make the users of this substance tear their clothes. The paranoia they experience as a result of the intake of this substance manifests itself in generally acts of aggression and violence, self destruction as well as attacking those around the location. At this point, their social life may exist in anarchy and are not willing to take orders and command of a higher authority. Based on empirical examples, the intoxication of bath salts may trigger a number of signs. One such sign is exhibiting violent behavior that may eventually lead to acts of suicide as well as the loss of multiple lives. For instance, a middle aged woman in the United Kingdom who ignorantly took the substance without weighing on its possible dangers, this woman had a particular objective, to lose weight. Eventually, she achieved her objective, but as a result of addiction and intoxication, she became paranoid and was generally aggressive and violent. Eventually, she succumbed into a coma and consequently suffered a brain damage that was irreversible in nature.

In Arizona, the law enforcers also that a middle aged man intoxicated with bath salts attempted to break into a hospital  room using a fire extinguishing cylinder. Those who attempted to stop him were sprayed with the foam. In the same location, another intoxicated middle aged man walked as he hit himself against the walls. He eventually went naked and began running all over the place.

One of the most terrible events that involved the intoxication of bath salts was when a young mother and her husband were involved in a car accident. After the high speed chase that resulted to the crush, the father shot his wife, their child and finally himself. These empirical examples just highlight the overwhelming effects of bath salt intoxication.

                        The intoxication of bath salts in both in low and high doses has a number of side effects. Chest pains, hallucinations, hypertension and paranoia are some of the effects that can last for a number of days (Lyman 86). In addition to these side effects, the drug users may suffer from brain swelling, hyperthermia and liver malfunctions. The emotional side effects may include; violence, panic attacks, suicidal thoughts of cutting, burning and hitting oneself among others. The care of overdose drug users may occur within the perimeter of the intensive care unit, the use of restraints or antipsychotics, and the use of intravenous sedatives among others. These stringent measures seek to protect the providers of health care as well as the patient from harm. The release of myoglobin, which is a proteneous substance into the blood channel may damage the muscle fibers and consequently affect the kidney. This process is biologically referred to as Rhabdomyolysis. Since there is no scientifically known cure for bath salt intoxication, it is important that patients be given extreme and supportive care.

Just like any other forms of drug abuse, the abuse of bath salts is a disorder that featured by a trend that is destructive in nature. More often than not, this destructive trend always leads to suffering and other significant problems. The addiction to the dependence on bath salt affects the mental being as well as the social life of the substance user. It may affect their productivity both in the work place as well as at school. Concisely, in order for an individual to be diagnosed with the abuse and overuse of bath salt, they ought to have shown the destructive trends as well as high levels of stress. The destructive pattern may be characterized by any one of the following signs within a year of the substance abuse: Recurring intake of bath salts that leads to negligence at school and at the work place.

The persistent nature of social problems that results to social problems

Perpetual nature of legal problems as well as the use of these substances in dangerous situations

It therefore follows that, for an individual to be diagnosed with the addiction and abuse of bath salts, their destructive trends ought to lead of considerable problems that may manifest themselves it at least three of the symptoms mentioned above within the one year period. These symptoms may include one or more of the following;

Tolerance, the implication here is that the user may decrease the amount of substance intake or increase the intake with the aim of aim of achieving similar and other high desired effects.

Withdrawal, this represents both the psychological as well as the physical symptoms. These symptoms are in tandem with the withdrawal from substance abuse. It may also involve consuming another chemical substance so as to avoid exhibiting the symptoms of withdrawal.

The substance user may also exhibit a continuous desire to consume the drug. The patient may also have unsuccessful efforts to reduce as well as control the use of this substance.

The addict may also spend a relatively large amount of time accessing, utilizing or recovering from the adverse side effects of the bath salt.

The individual may also significantly stop and reduce their participation in fundamental recreational, work related, social as well as school activities.

Despite recognizing that they suffer from perpetual psychological problems, the addict may continue to abuse the substance.

Conventional medical and health practitioners all agree that there is no single test that completely shows that an individual is abusing and addicted to bath salts. This is to mean that the health practitioners diagnose addicted individual based on thorough in mental health, medical as well as family information. In addition to this, they may also conduct primary examination. A medical examination may include collection of samples from the specimen to examine the health of the addict as well as well as an assessment to determine the mental being of the addict. By looking at the symptoms of a mental health problem, the health care practitioners often attempt to look at the existing manic as well as depressing symptoms in addition to delusions, anxiety as well as hallucinations among others. They may also proceed to administer a quiz or a test to screen for over reliance on bath salts. Mental health screening is a reliable way to measure if the addicts suffer from bipolar disarray, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, anxiety disorder as well as other forms of psychotic disarray. The health care practitioner may also conduct an examination of the mental status to determine the emotional status of the addict. In addition to the provision of treatment that is suitable for the diagnosis to the addicts, an examination of the existence of mental illness may occur at the same time. A dual approach to the diagnosis procedure is therefore necessary for efficiency.

                        The treatment of intoxication of bath salts abuse as well as addiction entails the provision of extreme medical attention. This attention should also specifically address the symptoms that an addict shows. Usually, it involves the use of specific drugs to ease the anxiety as well as other symptoms of emotional intoxication. There are a number of primary objectives that motivate the treatment of bath salts disorder. These are prevention of a relapse, rehabilitation as well as the promotion of abstinence from substance abuse. When the addicted individual ultimately abstains from consuming the bath salts, they may require extreme assistance in to stay away from the effects of withdrawal. This process is professionally described as detoxification (Woodan 10). The process of detoxification is usually done in a hospital environment and in detox centers. In these centers, the health practitioners use special medicinal drugs, which reduce the symptoms of withdrawal. These locations also allow for recurrent medical consultations and assessments. This is usually a challenging process and may last for numerous days.

However, addicts who exhibit mild psychological signs may receive medical care from outside the hospital environment. Codependency is another essential aspect for the treatment of bath salt disorder (Septien 9). This refers to the act of collaborating with the family and friends of the addicted individual not to support substance abuse. Putting emphasis on individuals addicted to birth salt substance abuse at a tender age would prove to be more effective as opposed to treating a mature addict.

                        Since the 1970s, substantial scientific research indicates that treatment is an essential method of ensuring patients of drug addiction avoid relapse, recover their drug free lives as well as stop substance abuse. Therefore, based on this scientific research, the following treatment principles should be adhered to for the effectiveness of any substance addiction treatment (Drug Court 128);

That there is no single treatment procedure that can be used as a standard treatment for all patients, therefore, every patient reacts differently from different procedures as a result of different levels of intoxication.

The treatment of substance abuse ought to be readily accessible and available. Patients should at all times be able to seek help as a result of drug addiction

Substance abuse may be complex; however, the fact is that it is treatable even if it affects the functioning of the brain as well as the behavior of the addict.

An effective treatment program is one that ensures a holistic approach to the individual growth and not just on the addiction. The treatment program should satisfy the numerous needs of the individual.

The treatment program ought to utilize an adequate period of time. It should not be rushed or undertaken slowly. The treatment centers should always seek a balance between urgency and the slowness of the process.

Individual as well as group guidance and counseling ought to be utilized. This should be continues in nature and has proved to be the most effective means of treatment. Guidance and counseling should be utilized in tandem with the use of medication.

The needs of the patients should be assessed in a continuous manner to ensure that they meet their dynamic needs.

For purposes of effectiveness, treatment needs not to be done on the voluntary basis of the patient as they may sometimes not be aware of their symptoms.

Effective treatment should assess the presence of other diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C as well as other highly communicable diseases. Lapses may occur in between the treatment process, it is therefore necessary to ensure close monitoring and evaluation of the patients. This principles need to be adhered to when treating a patient suffering from bath salts intoxication in order to improve the efficacy of the procedure.

                        Bath salts refer to a specific category of designer drugs or drugs of abuse. This category of drugs is usually referred to as bath salts because they usually form powder substances that are white in color. In the United States for instance, the abuse of bath salts has been on a drastic rise. This abuse is especially among the peer groups of the youths. Bath salts are addictive in nature. They are also illegal. The prevention of the levels of vulnerability to the abuse of these substances includes; general guidance and counseling for drug abuse, keeping a busy schedule to avoid idleness as well as public advocacy and education on the effects of substance abuse on national media platforms. The use of bath salts is accompanied by a number of signs and symptoms.

The signs and symptoms include; high euphoria, high sexual stimulation, high levels of focus as well as high energy levels. These symptoms are usually evident within the first two to four hours after consuming drugs. The intoxication of bath salts in both in low and high doses has a number of side effects. Chest pains, hallucinations, hypertension and paranoia are some of the effects that can last for a number of days. Conventional medical and health practitioners all agree that there is no single test that completely shows that an individual is abusing and addicted to bath salts. This is to mean that the health practitioners diagnose addicted individual based on thorough in mental health, medical as well as family information. To address the problem of addiction to bath salts, the health practitioners collaborate with patients by applying the principles of addiction treatment.

Works Cited

Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. New York: Springer, 2007. Print.

Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014. Internet resource

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across the Spectrum. United States: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

Levounis, Petros, and Abigail J. Herron. The Addiction Casebook. , 2014. Internet resource.

Lyman, Michael D. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013. Internet resource

Parvensky, Barwell C. A. Emergency Medical Technician Transition Manual: Bridging the Gap to the National Ems Education Standards. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print

Septien, Al. Everything You Need to Know About Codependency. New York: Rosen Pub, 1997. Print.

Van, Wormer K. S, and Diane R. Davis. Addiction Treatment: a Strengths Perspective /$ckatherine S. Van Wormer, Diane Rae Davis. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co, 2012. Print.

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Bath salts effects and toxicity

                        The phrase bath salts refer to a specific category of designer drugs or drugs of abuse. This category of drugs is usually referred to as bath salts because they usually form powder substances that are white in color (Parvensky et al 209). To that extent, therefore, bath salt dugs revolve within and around the following substances methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV or MDPK) (Levounis & Abigail 171), methylone, mephedrone among others. These drug salts have a similar stimulating ability to the likes of cocaine. They also draw a number of similarities to chemical substances like Ecstasy. These drugs also have a number of street names; Vanilla sky, super coke, meph, white lightning and red dove are some of these names. Drug salts are usually introduced to the human body through various means, such as, sniffing, smoking and injection as well as consumed in combination with food substances (Emerging Trends 62). In the United States for instance, the abuse of bath salts has been on a drastic rise. This abuse is especially among the peer groups of the youths. Today, the abuse of this chemical substance ranks fifth after the traditional drugs like alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, ecstasy as well as cocaine. A predominant number of users tend to belong to the young male gender. Their rate of utility is also placed at least once in a week. Their mode of consumption is what actually makes them vulnerable to addiction and health related complications. This mode includes the inhalation of the chemical substance through the nostrils. This paper shall thus discuss the effects of bath salt as well as other salient issues of these chemical substances such as; their addictive nature, the symptoms of addiction as well as their diagnosis and treatment procedures among others.

                        Bath salts are addictive in nature. In as much as they are fairly new chemically abused substances and the fact that little substantial research has been done to determine their effects, their addictive nature should not be overlooked. Medical practitioners have ranked bath salts as having a similar addictive potential to the most common stimulants of cocaine and methamphetamines among others. In addition, due to their relatively devastating addictive nature, a number of federal states in the United States have prohibited the use of MDPV salt. The perpetual utility of this salt leads to violence, hallucination as well as paranoia within and among the users. Concisely, bath salts are both addictive and prohibited chemical substances in the United States of America (Van & Diane 142).

                        A number of risk factors that justify why individual are prone to the addictive nature of bath salts do exist. These risk and vulnerability factors can be classified into a number of categories. These categories are but not limited to, social factors, biological factors as well as the psychological factors. These factors render individuals vulnerable to the dependence disorder. It is important to point out that the rate at which addictions to drugs happens is the family milieu. To that extent, most scholars of substance abuse do give recognition to the genetic aspect of addiction. Depression, anxiety as well as mood swings are some of the mental turmoil and symptoms of the use of bath salts. In addition, the social possibility factors of bath salts, just like those of any other stimulant drug addiction as well as abuse revolves around; low living standards, the male gender, ages of between 18 years to 44 years old as well as a marital status that depicts unmarried. In addition, neglect parenting styles may also expose users to substance abuse. The prevention of the levels of vulnerability to the abuse of these substances includes; general guidance and counseling for drug abuse, keeping a busy schedule to avoid idleness as well as public advocacy and education on the effects of substance abuse on national media platforms. These are some of the ways and methods to prevent the vulnerability to the addiction of these substances (Goldberg 322).

                        The use of bath salts is accompanied by a number of signs and symptoms. By observing these symptoms from a close friend or relative may be a clear indicator that they are highly intoxicated in bath salts. The signs and symptoms include; high euphoria, high sexual stimulation, high levels of focus as well as high energy levels. These symptoms are usually evident within the first two to four hours after consuming drugs. The other general symptoms of the abuse of bath salts include; anxiety, a behavior that is jittery in nature, feeling of nausea, an increase in the rate of heart beats, general lack of sleep, which is sometimes referred to as insomnia, general lack of appetite, feelings of depression and consequently suicidal thoughts, panic attacks, general violent behavior among other signs and symptoms (Goldberg 37).

                        The emission of too much heat within the body as a result of consuming this product may make the users of this substance tear their clothes. The paranoia they experience as a result of the intake of this substance manifests itself in generally acts of aggression and violence, self destruction as well as attacking those around the location. At this point, their social life may exist in anarchy and are not willing to take orders and command of a higher authority. Based on empirical examples, the intoxication of bath salts may trigger a number of signs. One such sign is exhibiting violent behavior that may eventually lead to acts of suicide as well as the loss of multiple lives. For instance, a middle aged woman in the United Kingdom who ignorantly took the substance without weighing on its possible dangers, this woman had a particular objective, to lose weight. Eventually, she achieved her objective, but as a result of addiction and intoxication, she became paranoid and was generally aggressive and violent. Eventually, she succumbed into a coma and consequently suffered a brain damage that was irreversible in nature.

In Arizona, the law enforcers also that a middle aged man intoxicated with bath salts attempted to break into a hospital  room using a fire extinguishing cylinder. Those who attempted to stop him were sprayed with the foam. In the same location, another intoxicated middle aged man walked as he hit himself against the walls. He eventually went naked and began running all over the place.

One of the most terrible events that involved the intoxication of bath salts was when a young mother and her husband were involved in a car accident. After the high speed chase that resulted to the crush, the father shot his wife, their child and finally himself. These empirical examples just highlight the overwhelming effects of bath salt intoxication.

                        The intoxication of bath salts in both in low and high doses has a number of side effects. Chest pains, hallucinations, hypertension and paranoia are some of the effects that can last for a number of days (Lyman 86). In addition to these side effects, the drug users may suffer from brain swelling, hyperthermia and liver malfunctions. The emotional side effects may include; violence, panic attacks, suicidal thoughts of cutting, burning and hitting oneself among others. The care of overdose drug users may occur within the perimeter of the intensive care unit, the use of restraints or antipsychotics, and the use of intravenous sedatives among others. These stringent measures seek to protect the providers of health care as well as the patient from harm. The release of myoglobin, which is a proteneous substance into the blood channel may damage the muscle fibers and consequently affect the kidney. This process is biologically referred to as Rhabdomyolysis. Since there is no scientifically known cure for bath salt intoxication, it is important that patients be given extreme and supportive care.

Just like any other forms of drug abuse, the abuse of bath salts is a disorder that featured by a trend that is destructive in nature. More often than not, this destructive trend always leads to suffering and other significant problems. The addiction to the dependence on bath salt affects the mental being as well as the social life of the substance user. It may affect their productivity both in the work place as well as at school. Concisely, in order for an individual to be diagnosed with the abuse and overuse of bath salt, they ought to have shown the destructive trends as well as high levels of stress. The destructive pattern may be characterized by any one of the following signs within a year of the substance abuse: Recurring intake of bath salts that leads to negligence at school and at the work place.

The persistent nature of social problems that results to social problems

Perpetual nature of legal problems as well as the use of these substances in dangerous situations

It therefore follows that, for an individual to be diagnosed with the addiction and abuse of bath salts, their destructive trends ought to lead of considerable problems that may manifest themselves it at least three of the symptoms mentioned above within the one year period. These symptoms may include one or more of the following;

Tolerance, the implication here is that the user may decrease the amount of substance intake or increase the intake with the aim of aim of achieving similar and other high desired effects.

Withdrawal, this represents both the psychological as well as the physical symptoms. These symptoms are in tandem with the withdrawal from substance abuse. It may also involve consuming another chemical substance so as to avoid exhibiting the symptoms of withdrawal.

The substance user may also exhibit a continuous desire to consume the drug. The patient may also have unsuccessful efforts to reduce as well as control the use of this substance.

The addict may also spend a relatively large amount of time accessing, utilizing or recovering from the adverse side effects of the bath salt.

The individual may also significantly stop and reduce their participation in fundamental recreational, work related, social as well as school activities.

Despite recognizing that they suffer from perpetual psychological problems, the addict may continue to abuse the substance.

Conventional medical and health practitioners all agree that there is no single test that completely shows that an individual is abusing and addicted to bath salts. This is to mean that the health practitioners diagnose addicted individual based on thorough in mental health, medical as well as family information. In addition to this, they may also conduct primary examination. A medical examination may include collection of samples from the specimen to examine the health of the addict as well as well as an assessment to determine the mental being of the addict. By looking at the symptoms of a mental health problem, the health care practitioners often attempt to look at the existing manic as well as depressing symptoms in addition to delusions, anxiety as well as hallucinations among others. They may also proceed to administer a quiz or a test to screen for over reliance on bath salts. Mental health screening is a reliable way to measure if the addicts suffer from bipolar disarray, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, anxiety disorder as well as other forms of psychotic disarray. The health care practitioner may also conduct an examination of the mental status to determine the emotional status of the addict. In addition to the provision of treatment that is suitable for the diagnosis to the addicts, an examination of the existence of mental illness may occur at the same time. A dual approach to the diagnosis procedure is therefore necessary for efficiency.

                        The treatment of intoxication of bath salts abuse as well as addiction entails the provision of extreme medical attention. This attention should also specifically address the symptoms that an addict shows. Usually, it involves the use of specific drugs to ease the anxiety as well as other symptoms of emotional intoxication. There are a number of primary objectives that motivate the treatment of bath salts disorder. These are prevention of a relapse, rehabilitation as well as the promotion of abstinence from substance abuse. When the addicted individual ultimately abstains from consuming the bath salts, they may require extreme assistance in to stay away from the effects of withdrawal. This process is professionally described as detoxification (Woodan 10). The process of detoxification is usually done in a hospital environment and in detox centers. In these centers, the health practitioners use special medicinal drugs, which reduce the symptoms of withdrawal. These locations also allow for recurrent medical consultations and assessments. This is usually a challenging process and may last for numerous days.

However, addicts who exhibit mild psychological signs may receive medical care from outside the hospital environment. Codependency is another essential aspect for the treatment of bath salt disorder (Septien 9). This refers to the act of collaborating with the family and friends of the addicted individual not to support substance abuse. Putting emphasis on individuals addicted to birth salt substance abuse at a tender age would prove to be more effective as opposed to treating a mature addict.

                        Since the 1970s, substantial scientific research indicates that treatment is an essential method of ensuring patients of drug addiction avoid relapse, recover their drug free lives as well as stop substance abuse. Therefore, based on this scientific research, the following treatment principles should be adhered to for the effectiveness of any substance addiction treatment (Drug Court 128);

That there is no single treatment procedure that can be used as a standard treatment for all patients, therefore, every patient reacts differently from different procedures as a result of different levels of intoxication.

The treatment of substance abuse ought to be readily accessible and available. Patients should at all times be able to seek help as a result of drug addiction

Substance abuse may be complex; however, the fact is that it is treatable even if it affects the functioning of the brain as well as the behavior of the addict.

An effective treatment program is one that ensures a holistic approach to the individual growth and not just on the addiction. The treatment program should satisfy the numerous needs of the individual.

The treatment program ought to utilize an adequate period of time. It should not be rushed or undertaken slowly. The treatment centers should always seek a balance between urgency and the slowness of the process.

Individual as well as group guidance and counseling ought to be utilized. This should be continues in nature and has proved to be the most effective means of treatment. Guidance and counseling should be utilized in tandem with the use of medication.

The needs of the patients should be assessed in a continuous manner to ensure that they meet their dynamic needs.

For purposes of effectiveness, treatment needs not to be done on the voluntary basis of the patient as they may sometimes not be aware of their symptoms.

Effective treatment should assess the presence of other diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C as well as other highly communicable diseases. Lapses may occur in between the treatment process, it is therefore necessary to ensure close monitoring and evaluation of the patients. This principles need to be adhered to when treating a patient suffering from bath salts intoxication in order to improve the efficacy of the procedure.

                        Bath salts refer to a specific category of designer drugs or drugs of abuse. This category of drugs is usually referred to as bath salts because they usually form powder substances that are white in color. In the United States for instance, the abuse of bath salts has been on a drastic rise. This abuse is especially among the peer groups of the youths. Bath salts are addictive in nature. They are also illegal. The prevention of the levels of vulnerability to the abuse of these substances includes; general guidance and counseling for drug abuse, keeping a busy schedule to avoid idleness as well as public advocacy and education on the effects of substance abuse on national media platforms. The use of bath salts is accompanied by a number of signs and symptoms.

The signs and symptoms include; high euphoria, high sexual stimulation, high levels of focus as well as high energy levels. These symptoms are usually evident within the first two to four hours after consuming drugs. The intoxication of bath salts in both in low and high doses has a number of side effects. Chest pains, hallucinations, hypertension and paranoia are some of the effects that can last for a number of days. Conventional medical and health practitioners all agree that there is no single test that completely shows that an individual is abusing and addicted to bath salts. This is to mean that the health practitioners diagnose addicted individual based on thorough in mental health, medical as well as family information. To address the problem of addiction to bath salts, the health practitioners collaborate with patients by applying the principles of addiction treatment.

Works Cited

Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. New York: Springer, 2007. Print.

Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014. Internet resource

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across the Spectrum. United States: Wadsworth, 2014. Print.

Levounis, Petros, and Abigail J. Herron. The Addiction Casebook. , 2014. Internet resource.

Lyman, Michael D. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013. Internet resource

Parvensky, Barwell C. A. Emergency Medical Technician Transition Manual: Bridging the Gap to the National Ems Education Standards. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print

Septien, Al. Everything You Need to Know About Codependency. New York: Rosen Pub, 1997. Print.

Van, Wormer K. S, and Diane R. Davis. Addiction Treatment: a Strengths Perspective /$ckatherine S. Van Wormer, Diane Rae Davis. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co, 2012. Print.

Wootan, Gerald D, and M B. Phillips. Detox Diets for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010. Internet resource.

Wootan, Gerald D, and M B. Phillips. Detox Diets for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010. Internet resource.