Marketing Essay Sample on Silk Roads, Sea Routes, and Columbian Exchanges

Silk Roads, Sea Routes, and Columbian Exchanges

The silk route is a chain of trade and routes for cultural transmissions that were fundamental to interactions of culture through Asian continent regions. These regions connected to the West and East by linking monks, pilgrims, urban dwellers, merchants, nomads, traders, and soldiers from China to India to Mediterranean Sea during different periods. The Silk Road derived its name from Chinese silk’s lucrative trade that was practiced along its length after extending for 4000 miles. This was during the Han Dynasty after Hellenistic kingdoms and networks of trade that extended from Mediterranean to the modern Afghanistan and Tajikistan on China’s boarders. The Han dynasty expanded the trade roués in 114 BC through explorations and missions of the Chinese imperial envoy. The Chinese had a great interest in their trade products’ safety, and they, therefore extended the Great Wall of China to protect the trade route (Ceceri, 2011).

Silk Road trade played key roles in development and civilization of china, Persia, Arabia, and Europe, opening long-distance economic and political interactions among these civilizations. Silk was the main item of trade but other goods such as gold, tea; spices and jade were also traded. Various religions, syncretic philosophies, technologies, and diseases, were also acquired on the routes. Silk Road also provides a means for cultural trade practicing among the civilizations. The main traders in this trade were Persians, Syrians, Romans, Americans, Greeks, Indians, Chinese, and Bactria’s. The Sogdians also participated in the trade from the 5th to the 8th century. Arabs became prominent in the trade during the coming of age of Islam.

During the period of Eastern Han Dynasty, the sea route ran from the mouth of Red river, through Malacca Straits to Southeast Asia, India and Sri Lanka, then to the Persian Gulf and the red sea. Silk and other goods were transported overland from the port of the red sea to the Nile, then to Alexandria. From Alexandria, the goods were shipped to Rome and other ports along Mediterranean. There was another segment of the sea routes that led down the coast of east Africa to port Rhapta, as referred to by the Romans, which was located river Rufiji delta in modern Tanzania. Silk Road on the sea pulls out from southern china to present day Brunei, Malacca, Thailand, India, Ceylon, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Iran. It extends from Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, and Italy in Europe. It extends to Portugal and Sweden in the Mediterranean Sea (Ceceri, 2011).

Trade goods led to advancement s from Europe to Africa to china and Japan. Long distance trade supplied people with variety of products and varied diets, which improved the quality of life. This improvement in the quality of life led to increased population. Trade also led to the establishment of kingdoms, empires, and states. There was appearance of empires in South America, Mesoamerica, and West Africa. The economic systems and states linked to these empires became strong and complex. This era of trade saw the growth and multiplication of cities and led to the emergence of Indian Ocean basin as a focus of economic interchange (Ceceri, 2011).

Mesoamerican societies were not connected to a single river, even though there were many rivers in the new world. Civilization in Americas occurred later than elsewhere due to separation from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Mesoamerica is divided vertically into an intermediate temperate zone, tropical lowlands, and cooler highlands. Mesoamerica’s civilization lacked cultural unity, and different societies rose and fell over time. The most widely known societies were the Olmec, Toltec, Zapotec, Mexica, Mixtec, Inka, and Aztec. Civilization of Mesoamerica achieved several advancements in mathematics, engineering, etc. with respect to urban population, e.g. the city of Teotihuacan in Mexico valley reached the size of over 100000 by 100 Ce (Menchaca, 2009).

The Mexica’s official language is Spanish, but there are other more than one hundred American native languages that are spoken. The centre of the social structure is the family as it provides a sense of stability. The businesses and societies are vertically structured and they emphasize hierchical relationships. Rank is important among the Mexicans and there is respect to authority. Mexicans have a great positive attachment to gifts and they treat different gifts with different perspectives. For example, marigolds given as gifts symbolize death and they value flowers as good gifts. They observe different etiquettes e.g. dinning and business etiquettes. They also believe in decent dressing e.g. business men should wear dark suits that are conservative. The Mexican has no official religion. This is as a result of the division of state and church guaranteed by the constitution (Menchaca, 2009). However, most of the population is supposedly affiliated with Roman Catholicism.

The Columbian exchange refers to the transfer of plants, animals, technology, culture, human populations, ideas, and diseases between the afro-Eurasian and American hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries. This contact led to the flow of a variety of livestock and new crops, which supported population, increase in the hemispheres. Traders brought tomatoes potatoes, and maize to Europe. The Europeans pioneered peanut and manioc to Asia and tropical West Africa. Diseases that were brought to the American hemisphere initially led to population decrease among the indigenous Americans. The Dutch, English and Portuguese trading empires encouraged the establishment of a global trading system for flows of globalization, since no single nation is self-sufficient. A global trading system is also essential in enabling the mobility of factors of production and to ensure development of global production networks. These trading empires encouraged development of global trading systems to facilitate trade and international transportation.

References

Ceceri, K. (2011). The Silk Road: Explore the world’s most famous trade route. White River Junction, VT: Nomad Press.

Menchaca, M. (2009). The Mexican outsiders: A community history of marginalization and discrimination in California. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.