Management Article Review Paper Sample on Delegation of Authority & Reduced Monitoring Effects on Employee Performance in Saudi Public Sector

Delegation of Authority & Reduced Monitoring Effects on Employee Performance in Saudi Public Sector

The success of any organization is greatly influenced by the ability and commitment of the employees to meet the expected objectives. Among the factors that enhance the performance of employees is motivation. Motivated employees have higher willingness to work and they are able to share their knowledge with the others thus enhancing the overall productivity of the employees. However, motivating employees to work harder is not an easy task because different workers have varying factors that motivate them. The nature of work that the public sector faces with regard to employee performance differs from other sectors such as the business sector. In most cases, the level of motivation of employees in the public sector is less compared to the private sector.

            Employee performance is defined by the ability of workers to execute their duties diligently and within the set schedule. It entails the commitment of employees to meet their responsibilities using minimum resources. To ensure that the performance of employees is at the expected level, most of the companies conduct evaluations or appraisals periodically. The company objectives are used as indicators of how well the employees are able to meet the set targets.  Different organizations have varying methods of gauging the performance of the employees. While some take periodic performance evaluations, some prefer to take a different approach of monitoring the employees closely as they perform their duties.  Monitoring the employees closely is a sure way of ensuring that they avoid wasting time and that they are able to carry out the expected activities within the set deadline. However, the approach may reduce the productivity of employees who are likely to feel like they are not trusted enough to carry on their tasks responsibly. Further, it reduces the creativity of employees because they are afraid to do anything out of the norm. This inhibits innovation which is a crucial aspect of success in the highly competitive world today.

            This paper aims to establish whether employee performance in the public sector is linked with delegation of authority and reduced monitoring of employees by the supervisors.  The significance of activities carried out by the public sector justifies the study which aims at establishing methods that can be used to enhance the productivity of the employees. The public sector is mandated with management of essential activities such as security, healthcare, education and supply of clean water. These activities are crucial to the well-being of individuals and their disruption may lead to negative economic, political and social consequences. One of the ways that the disruption can be avoided is by ensuring that the workers in the public sector are able to perform their duties diligently. By researching on the impact of delegation and monitoring on employee performance, it is possible to establish how the public sector should implement the same to motivate the employees. One of the reasons that the study is likely to attract the attention of many people is the fact that it addresses employee performance in the public sector, which is one area that has been performing poorly over the years. The second reason is the fact that area of study has not been thoroughly explored, based on the limited studies available. The final reason is that issues relating to productivity of organizations have gained great interest in the modern world due to the changed nature of the workplace.

The public sector organizations play an important role in providing essential goods and services to the public such as clean water and disposal of waste. The services are crucial to the welfare of the citizens; thus, it is important for the companies operating in the sector to be accountable.  The efforts of employees play an important role in ensuring that the public sector companies meet the set objectives. However, when the employees are not motivated to work, their poor performance affects the ability of the public sector to provide the essential services effectively.  The motivation of the employees in the public sector is affected by the working environment, which is characterized by a lot of bureaucracy.

            A study conducted by ( Chandrasekar,2,2011) indicates that the productivity of employees is greatly influenced by the working environment they are exposed to. The productivity of employees is high in sectors where the workers are involved in decision making.  This is mainly possible through delegation of authority from the senior to the junior members of the organization. Delegation has a positive effect on employee motivation because it enables them to develop more skills as they carry out activities in different departments.  Research indicates that delegation enhances productivity of the employee by enabling the senior officials to take part in other activities as the normal tasks are carried out by the other employees (Zhang, Gail-Joon and Bei-Tseng 404.2003). The other factor that influences the performance of employees positively is reduced supervision that shows that they are trusted to work on their own. However, these are factors that are uncommon in the public sector, a fact that reduces the productivity of the workers. It is therefore necessary to study the factors that may improve the performance of workers in the public sector such as reduced monitoring and delegation of authority.

  • and Hypotheses

3.1 Research Questions

  • Does the performance of employees in the public sector differ from the other sectors in the economy?
  • What are the challenges facing the public sector with regard to employee performance?
  • What is the importance of employee performance in the public sector?
  • Does delegation of authority affect employee performance positively?
  • What is the link between employee performance and reduced monitoring?

3.2 Research Objectives

In brief, the question put forth by this proposal is whether the regular measurements of the inputs and outcomes through delegation and monitoring play a critical role in the performance of the employee in the public sector. The need for research questions and objectives is to clarify the reality when the subordinates are confident and active when they are allowed to work with maximum freedom and authority. In this case, the following are the objectives adopted for this proposal.

  • To determine whether the performance of employees in the public sector differ from the other sectors in the economy.
  • To identify the challenges facing public sector with regard to employee performance.
  • To determine the importance of employee performance in the public sector.
  • To emphasize the association between the level of employee performance and the delegation of authority in the public sector.
  • To examine the relationship between employee performance and the reduced monitoring in the public sector
  • To assess whether the steps taken in the performance monitoring are essential toward identification as well as the clarification of the objectives to influence the extent to which the employee can attain the set goals and objectives.

3.3Research Hypotheses

  • There is a positive significant relationship between thereduced monitoring and the employee performance in the public sector (Van Helden et al. 26,2011).
  • There is a positive association existing between delegation of authority as the performance indicators and employee performance in the public sector (Van Helden et al. 27; Petrie 13,2011).
  • The increase in the governments’ actions toward the level of performance monitoring significantly increases the degree of the employee performance in the public sector (Petrie 128,2002).

4.1 Differences in employee performance in the public and the private sector

The main concern of the study is to establish the effects that delegation of authority and reduced monitoring has on the performance of employees. The main interest is the public sector employees because they are the most affected by these factors. Administrators in the public sector cite more challenges in managing the employees compared to their counterparts in the private sector. The poor productivity of employees in the public sector is not due to inability to perform their tasks or inadequate skills, but it results from the working conditions that are in the public sector. For many years, the public sector has adopted a bureaucratic system of administration where the employees are only involved in the implementation of decision made by the senior management. The private sector on the other hand has been operating a more democratic system where the input of all employees is recognized regardless of how minute it may seem. The public sector has thus created an environment where employees are less motivated compare to the ones on the private sector, leading to lower productivity.

The operation of employees in the public and the private sector differs because they aim at meeting varying goals. While the public sector aims at serving the interests of the citizens, the private sector’s primary goal is to maximize profits. The decision making process in the private sector is fast because it involves a panel of few people while the decision making process in the public sector is lengthy due to the high number of persons consulted before a proposal can be implemented.  The slow pace at which the decisions in the public sector are made lowers the morale of the leaders and this is passed onto the employees. The frustration of the employees in the public sector is usually reflected by the poor quality of services they provide.  The high bureaucracy in the public sector does not only affect the decision making process, but it also affects the ability of the leaders to delegate. The act of delegating authority to the junior level employees helps in sharpening the skills of employees and this enhances overall productivity (Chandrasekar 5,2011). There are more innovations in the private sector compared to the public institutions because the employees are encouraged to work on their terms. There are little, if any monitoring that takes place in the private sector, which enables the employees to be more productive.        

4.2 Challenges facing the public sector with regard to employee performance

Today, the public sector is faced with a number of challenges that affect its performance negatively. Over the years, the sector has been facing a lot of challenges in its operation and this has negatively affected its ability to provide quality services to the citizens.  The sector is experiencing a lot of pressure from the private sector and civil societies to change its traditional way of operation and adopt new ways. Issues of accountability, devolvement, and bureaucracy have a direct impact on the productivity of the sector.

4.3 Bureaucracy

The public sector has always had a bureaucratic system of administration (Zhang, Gail-Joon and Bei-Tseng 408,2003). The system requires the employees to follow a set of pre-determined rules in their operations. In such a system, the productivity of employees is determined by the extent to which they are able to follow the stipulated guidelines to the letter. The main advantage of the system is that the productivity of employees is uniform across the nation.  However, bureaucracy is one of the causes of the problems facing the sector in the modern days. The approach affects the performance of employees negatively because they are not motivated to work. The system does not encourage delegation of authority; rather the authority goes down the hierarchy. The chain of command in the system does not allow junior employees to perform duties that are assigned to the senior officers. This implies that delegation of authority in these sectors is impossible. The other aspect of bureaucracy that negatively affects the performance of employees is strict monitoring of their activities. The work of the supervisors is to ensure that the employees are performing their tasks as required. One of the ways that this is achieved is through strict monitoring of their activities.  Employees are more productive in areas where they are allowed to work freely as the close monitoring is perceived as lack of trust in their abilities.

4.4 Accountability

Over the years, accountability of the public sector is based on the level of employees in the hierarchy of authority. For instance, the managers at the operational level are accountable for the performance of junior employees. Similarly, the general or strategic manger is held accountable for the overall performance of the public sector organization. One of the primary duties of the public administrators is to ensure accountability of public resources. Unlike the private companies that use private funds in their activities, companies operating in the public sector use state-funded resources, making it necessary for accountability to be enhanced. The pressure by the government officials to be accountable has forced some managers to shy away from delegating authority (Chandrasekar 8,2011).  One is accountable for the activities that they are required to do regardless of whether they did the job or delegated it to a junior officer. Some officials may fear that delegation of authority may threaten their jobs in case the persons given the authority misuse it.  This is a challenge to the public sector organizations because the employees cannot take advantage of the benefits of delegation of authority. The focus on accountability by the public sector also forces the public sector management to be stricter on the employees’ performance. The most common strategy that the management uses to ensure that the employees are performing their duties as required is close monitoring. The employees mainly work under close supervisions so that they utilize the available resources in an economic way.

4.5 Devolvement

Devolution is one of the most significant aspects in relation to provision of services to the public efficiently. It enables the public sector to serve the public more effectively and this reduces the amount of resources spent on the same. Over the decades, the productivity of the public sector has been affected by centralization of power that inhibits efficiency in the sector. This has made it necessary for the public sector companies to adopt a more decentralized mode of operations to enhance efficiency. Among the most suitable ways of ensuring success in a devolved system of administration is by delegating authority down the hierarchy.

4.6Significance of employee performance in the public sector

The public sector organizations are involved in the provision of essential goods and services to the public. Employee performance in the sector is important as it ensures that the goods and services are delivered in the best way possible. The modern world is characterized by an increased demand for efficiency in the public sector due to high competition. The desire of a country is to have its economic status rise and one of the factors that lead to this is increased efficiency in the sector. The performance of employees in the public sector determines the quality of services offered (Macchiavello 214,2003). In the modern era, the high competition requires organizations to provide services in better ways than the other institutions providing the same. Although most of the public sector companies act as monopolies, it is crucial for the employees to enhance service delivery. A public sector workforce that is comprised of employees with low level of motivation is unlikely to succeed in its service delivery.

Employee performance has a direct link with the costs incurred at the workplace. The economic environment today focuses on ensuring that the limited national resources are used sparingly to ensure that everyone gets a share. However, this is only possible in an environment where the performance of employees is high. Employee performance entails the extent to which the workers are aware of their duties and responsibilities and are committed to meet deadlines.  This implies that employees with high performance are unlikely to waste the national resources. The poorly performing employees waste a lot of public resources either deliberately or unintentionally. The deliberate wastage of resources is brought about by reduced employee morale. With the low motivation to work, the employees may misuse public funds through various means including laxity and embezzlement of funds. This mainly occurs when the employees do not understand the significance of their contribution to the company. In most cases, the issue is brought about by the management’s lack of delegation of authority.  The deliberate wastage of resources results from the inability of the employees to perform their duties mainly due to poor training. Such situations occur due to the inability of the management to delegate authority. One of the merits of delegation is transfer of knowledge from one employee to the other. This implies that with proper delegation of authority, the public sector is likely to reduce wastage of resources.

4.7The link between delegation of authority and employee performance

Research indicates that there is a string link between delegation and the extent to which an organization is able to meet its objectives effectively (Al-Jammal, Al-Khasawneh, and Hamadat 50,2015)foundthat employees are able to work more efficiently and effectively and they feel more empowered to perform their duties when the administration delegates authority.  The delegation entails shifting power to lower level administration to enable the individuals perform their duties well. The employees are thus able to provide services more efficiently and effectively to the people and this enhances their performance. Delegation of authority relates directly to improved efficiency of employees with regard to the functions that they perform in the organization. Improved efficiency entails the ability of workers to complete their duties within the stipulated deadline. This reduces the delays that may be associated with a working environment where authority is not delegated. Improved efficiency in employee performance is also defined by the accuracy and speed of activities performed by the employees. The significance of services provided by the public sector to the citizens makes it necessary for high accuracy to be enhanced by the employees. Accuracy reduces incidences of error thus improving the productivity of employees in the public sector.

The performance of employees in relation to delegation of authority is also indicated by their effectiveness in conducting their functions. The effectiveness of the workers is determined by their ability to meet the set targets on time, using the available resources.  When an employee is allowed to have higher authority to conduct their activities, they perform their tasks creatively so as to complete the tasks on time. Creativity in organizational performance enhances innovation, which may lead the employees to discover new and more efficient ways of conducting their activities. Delegation of authority enhances the performance of the workers through empowerment (Al-Jammal, Al-Khasawneh, and Hamadat 51,2015). The delegation entails having junior employees perform tasks that are known to be conducted by the senior officers but with accountability and responsibility. The junior or the less experienced employees become more knowledgeable as they carry out different tasks. The delegation acts as their training ground as they have to meet the expected performance. Therefore, delegation of authority is closely linked to high employee performance and the success of the organization as a whole.

4.8The impact of reduced monitoring on employee performance

Monitoring is one of the ways through which employers use to ensure that the workers are performing according to the agreed guidelines. To some extent, the performance of employees is enhanced by the ability of the supervisors to monitor their work. The employees are less likely to be involved in counterproductive activities when they are fully aware that they are being monitored by the managers. Monitoring employees also contributes to the success of the organization because it does not give room for employees to misuse the organization’s resources. However, employee monitoring may lead to loss of motivation by the employees, especially if close monitoring is involved. This implies that reduced monitoring has a positive impact on employee motivation.(Rietzschel, Slijkhuis, and Yperen 394,2014) Researcher indicates that external forces, such as close monitoring of employees have an inverse relationship with employee performance and motivation  When the employees are closely monitored, they develop a negative attitude towards their work due to the feeling that they are unable to control their lives.

One of the most common ways through which supervisors monitor their employees is through electronic performance monitoring that ensures employees’ activities are closely followed.  The monitoring has a negative impact on employee behavior and as they may have reduced job satisfaction. Close monitoring of employees reduces their autonomy and this affects work motivation and reduces the ability of employees to carry out their work effectively.  Although close monitoring has negative impacts on employee performance, it allows for role clarity, thus enhancing the motivation of employees (Rietzschel, Slijkhuis, and Yperen 395,2014). This implies that motivation of employees is important in enhancing the productivity of employees, but the most important factor to consider is the extent to which the monitoring is done. Reducing the extent of monitoring is likely to yield positive results on employee performance. Without monitoring, the employees may not fully understand their roles in the company. However, when the monitoring is too close, the employees’ performance and job satisfaction are negatively affected.   

4.9. Relationship between the delegation of authority and employee performance 

            Employee performance and delegation has a positive relationship. The performance of employees in the public sector can be likened to the performance of employees in business organizations. The extent to which managers are able to delegate authority determines the level of job satisfaction for the employees. In a business setting, the ability of the employees to perform their duties effectively is influenced by the type of management adopted by the company. Managers who show dictatorial style of leadership do not motivate the employees to work. Such managers are less likely to delegate authority to the employees and this affects the performance of employees negatively (Sadler–Smith, Eugene, et al 50). The same case applies to the employees in the public sector. The ability of the employer to delegate authority motivates the public sector employees to be more productive.

            Over the years, the public sector has been characterized by a high level of bureaucracy but the trend is changing fast. The public sector in countries such as the United States, New Zealand and Australia has transformed over the years to enhance more efficiency, accountability and responsiveness of the employees (Romzek 21). The transformations have changed the culture of the public sector administration, making it more efficient in meeting the diverse needs of the public. One of the common strategies that these nations have adopted to succeed in changing the bureaucratic culture is decentralization of authority. The employees in the present administration are more empowered to perform their tasks compared to decades ago. The decisions of the public sector involve the participation of all the parties involved including the junior employees. The authority is no longer in a hierarchical form but a more horizontal approach has been adopted.

            The performance of the employees in the public sector is greatly influenced by the leadership abilities of the employees. One of the ways through which employee skills can be enhanced is through experiential learning, which is only possible in an environment where the authority of leaders is delegated to the junior staff. The delegation of authority increases the experience of the employees and promotes the operational, tactical, and strategic skills of the employees. These skills are important in developing the productivity of the employees in the public sector as they are able to perform their duties more diligently.

4.10. Reduced monitoring and employee performance 

            Reduced monitoring also has a positive relationship with employee performance. This implies that the performance of employees is improved in an environment where the employees are not monitored closely. One of the arguments about employee monitoring is that it increases the productivity of employees. A study conducted by Martin and Freeman indicates that the primary reason that employers monitor their employees is to increase the productivity of the company by reducing errors (Martin and Freeman 353). When the employees are not monitored, they may be involved in activities that waste a lot of company resources and time. In the modern days, most of the activities carried out by employees involve the use of computers and the internet. The failure to monitor the employees may lead to wastage of time as most of the employees use the company resources to surf their own websites or send personal emails. This conflicts with the interest of the company to increase the rate of productivity in the organization as the employees use most of the time and resources on their personal affairs. By monitoring the employees, the organization is therefore able to increase its productivity by limiting the time that employees spend on their personal activities and focusing their attention on meeting the objectives of the organization. 

            However, although monitoring the employees improves their productivity, it may have a negative effect on the same productivity.  This implies that the employees should be monitored but it should be minimal. A study by Hartman (1998), indicates that close monitoring reduces the productivity of employees due to increased boredom, anxiety, depression and anger (Martin and Freeman 354).  The close monitoring of employees reduces the morale of employees as they feel that technology used in the workplace monitors their electronic footprints thus limiting their privacy (Ciocchetti 285). The productivity of employees is greatly influenced by their health status because poor health increases the number of days that the employees are out of work. Further, the depressed employees are less likely to recover from illnesses fast. Employee monitoring also reduces the creativity of employees as they are not allowed to try new ways of doing things. Organizations rely on the creative ability of employees, thus reduced creativity hinders their productivity (Martin and Freeman 356).

The study on the effects of delegation of authority and reduced monitoring requires a systematic method of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.  There is limited research on the same, implying that there is need to conduct more study, especially bearing in mind that the public sector is involved in the provision of essential goods and services. Before data collection, it is important to ensure that the study has a strong theoretical framework. The framework and methodology section is important in guiding the research to ensure that all important aspects of the study are considered. The study will be guided by the hypothesis that delegation of authority and reduced monitoring motivates workers and this has a positive impact on the performance of employees in the public sector.

 5.1 Relation between variable

The dependent variable in the study will be employee performance because it is affected by the extent of delegation of authority and monitoring. The independent variables are delegation of authority and reduced monitoring because they are the causes of variation in employee performance.

5.2 Measurement

  The dependent variable will be measured by the extent to which employees are able to achieve their objectives in a timely manner. Independent variables will be indicated by the responses provided by the respondents regarding their perceptions on delegation of authority and reduced monitoring.  To reduce errors in data collection, the study will use questionnaires that will have open-ended questions to allow the participants to provide comprehensive information.

5.3Theoretical framework

The accuracy of research findings is important in determining the effect of delegation and monitoring in the performance of employees in the public sector. Data will be collected based on the concepts identified in the theoretical framework with regard to employee performance in the public sector. The framework is important in ensuring that the study has a guideline to avoid collecting irrelevant data. In the current study, the major aspects affecting the productivity of employees can be summed up by concepts that address employee performance.  The performance of employees is directly linked to the productivity of the company because they are able to meet the set objectives on time. One of the factors that affect the productivity of employees is the extent to which the employees are allowed to have freedom at the workplace. In work places where there is a lot of close monitoring, the employees may not feel free to work on their own schedule and this affects their productivity negatively ((Rietzschel, Slijkhuis, and Yperen 400,2014). 

            The second factor that affects the productivity is the extent to which the employees feel that they are supported and appreciated by the organization. The support is indicated by the extent to which the employees are equipped with the necessary tools to perform their duties. Factors such as delegation of authority and coaching are examples that an organization may use to ensure that the performance of employees is improved. Employees are also motivated by the personal development approaches that the organization uses to make sure that they are able to carry out their activities efficiently. An example of the way employees can be motivated is by using different approaches of training. The following model explains the effect of delegation of authority and reduced monitoring on the performance of employees and general organizational effectiveness.

The above framework explains the link between employee development, their performance and the effectiveness of the organization. Delegation of authority is one of the ways through which the company develops the skills of its employees. The concept allows employees to gain skills and knowledge in areas outside their specialty. The employees thus become more productive, boosting the effectiveness of the organization.  The other factor associated with the development of employees’ ability to perform their tasks more effectively is minimal supervision and reduced monitoring as it allows for creativity. The employees are able to carry on their activities on their schedule.  The feeling that they have control of their lives and work enhances their productivity and consequently organizational effectiveness. The framework acts as a guide to the following section of methodology.

5.4Methodological research design

The research is based on collecting data on employee performance, which is mainly based on their perception on delegation of authority and reduced monitoring. The most suitable method in collecting such data is exploratory mixed method research. In this type of design, the researcher is required to combine both the qualitative and quantitative techniques. The accuracy of the study is one of the most important aspects and it is enhanced by the exploratory mixed method research. The fact that the design uses multiple methods of data collection reduces incidences of errors, thus enhancing accuracy of the study.  Apart from high accuracy of the study findings, the methodology is important in conducting research in areas where there is limited previous studies. In the current study, most of the research is about employee performance in the business or the private sector. There is limited research on employee performance in the public sector, making the methodology suitable.  The quantitative method used in the study is aimed at identifying the constructs about delegation of authority and reduced monitoring on employee performance. It is important to understand such constructs and this is enhanced by qualitative research.

5.5Quantitative data collection technique

Quantitative design is aimed at identifying the relationship between data collected and the existing theory. Using the statistical data collected in the study, quantitative method helps in identifying any similar patterns in the study.  The method provides the link between the observable phenomena and the mathematical or statistical expressions. The data is presented in forms of percentages and other numerical features. In the current study, the most suitable data collection tool for quantitative data is questionnaires. The main advantage with the data collection tool is that it makes it possible for the researcher to collect data from a wide range of population. In the current study, the amount of data that needs to be collected is large because the population of employees working in the public sector is high.  The other advantage of using the data collection tool in the survey is that most respondents are familiar with the format thus reducing errors during the exercise. Due to the fact that the method uses numerical figures, the analysis of data collected is fast and more accurate. The data collection tool will use open-ended questions because they allow the respondents to give a more comprehensive answer.

5.5.1 Questionnaire design:

            Using the open-ended questions is advantageous because the participants are less likely to have errors in their responses. There is reduced likelihood of response error using these types of questions because the respondents fill in their opinions.  These types of questions allow the researchers to gain a clear insight on the emotions and attitude that the respondents have towards, the use of open-ended questions will allow the researchers to gain an understanding of the feelings that the public sector employees have regarding delegation of authority and reduction of monitoring. The design of a questionnaire is among the factors that influence the accuracy of responses provided. A simple and organized questionnaire makes the exercise easier leading to increased efficiency. The questionnaire will be divided into three sections, all using short open-ended questions. The first section will be used to gather information about the personal characteristics of the respondents including age, gender and education level. The second part will collect data on employee performance, using variables such as working experience, salary level, career development, job satisfaction and attitude towards management. The third section will collect data on the extent to which the company delegates authority and implements reduced monitoring. The variables used in this section include the extent to which employees are allowed to do routine jobs, how often job evaluations are done and the extent of monitoring by the management.

5.6Quantitative data analysis

The data collected using the questionnaires cannot be understood without being analyzed first. The analysis helps in creating a mathematical approach to the study question thus enabling the researcher to link statistical model identified with the theoretical framework available. The method of data analysis is determined by the nature of data collected, which is in turn influenced by the research design used. The data collected in the quantitative method will be numerical, making the SPSS software the best technique to use in analyzing data.  The factor analysis in this approach will be helpful to the researcher by enabling them to identify the reasons that delegation of authority and reduced monitoring affect employee performance positively. The correlation in the approach will be helpful to the researcher as they will be able to tell the extent to which the data collected will be significant.

5.7Qualitative data collection technique

The type of data collected in this method is nit numerical and it is aimed at enhancing the understanding of certain phenomena in the society.  The data collection tool that will be used in this section is interviews. The current study aims at identifying the effect of delegation of authority and reduced monitoring on the productivity of employees in the public sector. The study thus entails understanding the perceptions that shape employee attitude in the public sector. By using interviews, the researcher will be able to identify the factors that employees value in their jobs. The interviews will be based on close-ended questions so as to obtain clarity in the responses. The responses obtained using the questions are clear and easier to code. Further, it is easier for the researcher to classify the responses according to their similarities and differences, making the coding process easier and more accurate. One of the factors that reduce the willingness of participants to respond is the dislike of interview questions. By using close-ended questions, it is unlikely for the respondents to feel uneasy about the topic or some questions.

5.8Qualitative data analysis

The nature of data in this method is non-numerical thus the analysis can only be based on methods that use such data. During interviews, it is hard to collect numerical data. In the current study, the researcher will record the interview and then transcribe it to provide more concrete data.  Coding is the most suitable method of data analysis that will be used in the study to make the analysis easier. The main advantage with the method is that it is easy to implement and understand.  To enhance the interpretation of data, the responses will be classified into different concepts. This will also enhance accuracy of data collected in the study.

5.9Unit of analysis

 The unit of analysis in the study will beindividual , employee performance. The research will be based on the aspects that affect the performance of employees in the public sector. The productivity of employees will be measured by their ability to complete their tasks more efficiently within the stipulated timeframe. The primary variables that will be used in the study include delegation of authority and reduced monitoring. These are the independent factors because they influence the outcome of employee performance.

5.10population of interest, Target population andSample size

5.10.1population of interest

Population of interest for this study are the employees in the government sector.

5.10.2Target population

Target population for this study are the employees in the government sector  who are employed in the managerial and supervisory level and who are ready to provide the answers to the research objectives.

5.10.3 Sample size

To save time and financial resources used in the study, the researcher will use convenience sampling techniquewhich is non- probability sampling design for the qualitative study part. The approach allows the researchers to collect data from one institution.  The convenience sampling is the most suitable means because it allows for easier and quicker data collection. The data is available at a common location, thus reducing the time that the researcher may spend collecting data.  Other sampling methods that involve collection of data from different locations are expensive and consume more time.  The sampling technique is also useful in obtaining initial pilot data. In the current study data will be collected from the municipal council and ministries as it is representative of the public sector. And for the quantitative part the researcher will use probability sampling design which is simple random technique , Simple random sample advantages include ease of use and accuracy of representation. No easier method exists to extract a research sample from a larger population than simple random sampling. There is no need to divide the population into sub-populations or take any steps further than plucking the number of research subjects needed at random from the larger group, the number of respondents determines the reliability of data. For this reason, the study will distribute 250 questionnaires randomly, 120 employees from the junior level, 100 workers from the technical level and 30 employees from the managerial level.  The distribution of the sample population ensures that the data collected will be representative of all the employees in the municipal council. The accuracy of data in the qualitative study does not depend on the number of participants in the study rather it is determined by the reliability of the responses. Therefore, the interviews will be conducted on 100 employees who will be selected based on the ease of accessibility across the three levels of administration.

Preparing for ResearchDefining the assignment Exploring the topics of research Brainstorming the ideas Building an outline 1 week  
Finding ResourcesLocating the places to get the information Select the most apt sources Tracking and rating best sources Sharing or collaborating information   2-3 weeks
Processing InformationAnalysis or evaluation through critical thinking Adjusting the ideas Sorting the ideas and incorporating self-knowledge Synthesizing the information by consulting to get varied opinions 2 weeks
Transferring Information Revising the work Presenting the information to make sure all the details are correct Reflecting on the strengths Transferring or presenting by communicating what have been learned to others  1 week
  Task  Expected Completion Date
Approval Of The Topic Title10thFebruary, 2016
Preparing ProposalDraft26th March, 2016
Submission Of The Research Proposal23thApril, 2016
Proposal Presentation23th April, 2016
Literature Review10th May,2016
Research Methodology20th May,2016
Data Collection And Data Analysis30th May,2016
Submission Of The Study Draft10th Jun, 2016
Submission Of The Final Project10th July, 2016

The study on the factors that enhance performance of workers in the public sector is important in the modern world due to the high demand for public services. The study is relevant in the modern society because of its feasibility. The accuracy of data collection will be enhanced by the convenience sampling design. Due to the fact that the respondents will be located in the same location, it will be easier to collect data. The theoretical approach of the study makes it more reliable because it is based on previous research conducted on employee performance in the public sector. The study also uses a practical approach; thus, it will be possible to generalize the research findings because they will be reliable.  The practical aspect of the study is guaranteed by the fact that the findings will be based on questionnaires and interviews which allow more reliable data collection.

Also this study is going to be one of addition in references for the academics researcher and student in the future in order to continue a wider study.

  • References:
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