Leadership Studies Paper on Leadership Theories and Traits

Leadership Studies

Que 1

The following are three challenges that public leaders encounter when business of private leaders take precedence over government business. First, public leaders lose their potential dividends in government business when a private business acquires large amounts of profits. The second issue is that leaders in public sector will have a difficult time to regulate private monopolies to prevent abuse of their superiority at the market. The third problem is that public leaders encounter fragmentation of industries in that when difficulties arise, no one claims responsibility. These are two strategies that leaders in public sector could implement to ensure that privatization of public services do not influence citizens in a negative way. They should ensure that they improve efficiency in private business by reducing costs for citizens to afford their services. The public sector should also allow citizens to be shareholders in private firms to reduce inefficiency.

Que 2

The following are two scenarios that focus on political debates, which a public and a business leader may encounter in negotiations aimed to privatize public services. The two leaders will complain of increase in costs via taxpaying to meet the needs of shareholders in private firms. Another controversy that will be encountered is that public leaders will not be in a position to hold private leaders accountable to concerns of the public (Smith, 2010). To diffuse this controversy in most effective manner, these are two traits that should be depicted of a public leader. He/she should maintain objectivity during the discussion to ensure that he/she articulates for the rights of both private and public leaders. To diffuse the debate, a public leader would also assure both shareholders in private and public sector equality in their employment positions to avoid cases where counterparts in public sector are undermined due to privatization.

Que 3

A school system has appointed a new superintendent and is facing serious issues, such as budget cuts, low grades, and morale among teachers. Participative theory is effective for the administrator to address such issues by incorporating school stakeholders to be part of the resolution. Through this theory, the superintendent of the school system will encourage contribution and participation from all members. As a result, all participants feel relevant and part of the decision making process to restore order in school. Situational theory is another efficient approach for the superintendent to adopt. This is because it would permit the administrator to select the best course of action in relation to the situational variables. Based on this theory, a democratic style is also effective to allow members to suggest a solution that would solve this situation.

The two effective leadership traits that the administrator should adopt are communication and confidence. Through communication, the leader will instill trust in his/her team hence inspires them to work hard to improve this situation. Confidence is also a vital trait that allows the leader to assure school stakeholders to focus on their goals to overcome setbacks. As a result, this will motivate teachers to work extra harder and improve grades of their students.

Que 4

Lack of commitment and communication are two major pressures that a public administrator encounters from employees, shareholders, stakeholders, and customers. This implies that if all the mentioned parties fail to communicate their issues, this will hinder progress of the firm due to low returns. In addition, if no party shows commitment, it will lead to a low morale that could cause the downfall of a business. The first key action I propose that would assist the public administrator to face such pressure is to encourage dialogue with all the parties involved. Through dialogue, the administrator will be able to realize issues that contribute to pressure at the firm and solve them. The second major action that the public administrator needs to take is to be a role model in executing his/her duties to motivate others to be competent via commitment.

Que 5

The US health system involves facilities that are largely operated by businesses in private sector. In this system, 18 percent of hospitals operate for profit, 62 percent non-profit, and 20 percent are owned by the government. Sixty percent of healthcare in the US rely on programs, such as Medicaid and Medicare in provision of services. For instance, in 2013, the US experienced the highest prevalence of victims with lung and heart diseases. In matters of life expectancy, the US is ranked at the bottom, whereby males are expected to live for four fewer years (Teelken etal, 2012).

 In contrast to the European health systems, services are offered through a wide range of systems that operate at a state level. Contrary to the US system, healthcare in Europe is a funded publicly through taxation and majority of the countries in Europe have universal health coverage. Europe also offers its citizens a European Health Insurance Card, which caters for emergency medical treatment within its states. The following are actions that both systems could take to make their operations efficient and cost effective.  First, both healthcare systems should adopt insurance programs to sponsor its citizens to acquire effective medical treatment. Secondly, the government should take higher responsibility to ensure that its citizens receive treatment at an affordable price.


Smith, H. (2010). Leadership Theories and Traits. Upper Saddle River, N.J :Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.

Teelken, C., Ferlie, E., & Dent, M. (Eds.). (2012). Leadership in the public sector: Promises and   pitfalls. New York, NY: Routledge.