Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia was a country that was situated in Bohemia region in Central Europe with most of its territory being currently situated in the modern-day Czech Republic. This Kingdom was founded after the Great Moravian Empire collapsed. It became paramount for Czech development. This Kingdom was different from the ordinary Kingdoms because it was a symbol of the early modern economic, political and cultural entity. It is for this reason that Czechs consider the birth of this Kingdom as a brighter period of the history of their country. Dynastic politics were at the center stage of this Kingdom. These politics overshadowed ethnic and national questions because the Kingdom was a major medieval state.
How the Kingdom of Bohemia emerged
This Kingdom emerged during the 10th Century following Czech tribes’ unification by Premyslid chiefs. This led to the creation of a more centralized rule. Nevertheless, Bohemia Kingdom existed even under the Roman Empire following its separation from Byzantium. The Kingdom was visited by Otto I in 950 and he demanded an accolade. Consequently, this Kingdom joined Holy Roman Empire as part of it. German emperors were also using the clergy of the Roman Catholic in expanding influence in Czech. This was the time when Premyslid seized a chance to use German alliance in cementing their authority against the revolutions. This way, they ensured that their independence remained as they relate with the empire.
When and why this Kingdom grew
The growth of this Kingdom began mainly in 1029. This is when it acquired Moravia after a battle with Hungary and Poland. Moravia became under the leadership of the younger son of the King while remaining a separate margravate. Bohemia Kingdom and Moravia had a relationship that was severed oftentimes. When this happened, Moravia became subdued to Hungary or to Roman Empire directly. Although the fate of Moravia and Bohemia were interlaced, Moravia did not participate in religious and civil battles of Bohemia.
Bohemia continued to grow as a Kingdom in terms of strength with 13th century marking a dynamic time for the rulers over this Kingdom. In particular, Emperor Fredrick II had an obsession with the Mediterranean affairs as well as the Great interregnum that took place from 1254 to 1273. The impact of this preoccupation was significant because it undermined Central Europe’s influence leaving Premsylid to take control of Bohemia Kingdom.
In 2012, King Premysl Otakar I got Golden Bull. This confirmed his lineage and title. He was succeeded by Premysl Otakar II who married a German Princess, Margaret of Babenberg. This implied that he was the Austria duke enabling him to win lower and upper Austria as well as some regions in Styria. He also took over control of most parts of Carniola and Carinthia. It was under Otakar II that Bohenia reached its new peak of economic prosperity and political power. This is because he consolidated his control over Austria while waging war with Hungary to extend territory.
End of the Kingdom of Bohemia
After 1278, Otakar died during an Austrian invasion. This was followed by a reduction of Bohemia to its original size as well as influence. The Premyslid dynasty ended in 1306. Germans migrated into the Kingdom in the 13th century in large numbers. The Premyslid kings encouraged this migration with an aim of weakening the Czech’s nobility. The colonies of Germany were the mining districts of Bohemia Kingdom and towns became populated by the Germans.
The Germans introduced their law code, called the jus teutonicum. This became the basis of Bohemia’s commercial law. Czech nobles and Germans marriages later became common. Dynasty wars followed until 14th century which is seen as the Golden Age in Czech history. Bohemia crowns were captured by Luxemburg dynasty. The 2nd Luxemburg king, Charles, strengthened the prestige and power of Bohemia Kingdom again.
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