International Relations Sample Paper on American and Chinese Supremacy

AMERICAN AND CHINESE SUPREMACY

The world is in a process of rapid development and change. It has witnessed technological, economic, social, cultural, and political changes in the recent decades. The big debate has been about the world that human beings live in. It should not be forgotten that since the 1st and 2nd World Wars, there has been peace and political stability. Moreover, the global economy has been moving smoothly without any interruptions. More countries are working hard and round the clock to achieve global supremacy, one of them being China. The recent rise of China to global power and supremacy has surprised many, and it has been seen as a threat to the US, which has been the world superpower for several decades now. In fact, it is predicted that the rise of China might lead to eruption of war between the two countries (the US and China). This is a clear illustration that we live in a world of competition and rivalry where countries are selfish and only stress on things that are of benefit to them. For instance, the rise of China has not been welcomed by a number of countries, such as India, Japan, and South Korea among other countries. This paper will therefore compare and contrast three readings that discuss the economic and political rivalry among countries in the world today. These arguments in the books will be linked to broader international relation theory debates of realism, liberal pluralism, and critical theory.

First, John Mearsheimer’s article “Australians Should Fear the Rise of China” (2010) articulates that the rise of China to economic, military, and political power has come as a surprise to many countries, to be specific, Australia. The article points out that China has risen very fast to economic power and thus is seen as a threat to the US which has been an economic powerhouse for several decades. The article suggests that Australians are becoming worried that the rise of China is likely to lead to intense security competition between China and the US and this might in turn cause the existing global peace and good international relations. There is a feeling among Australians that China’s rise to power might make them be in control of the sea-lanes that run to and from the Middle East, yet Australia wants to be able to protect their lanes. This is just one of the reasons, according to the article, why Australia strongly opposes China’s rise to power. Taking into consideration the broader IR theory debates, to begin with, according to the theory of realism, other countries such as the US and Australia should accept the situation of China’s economic rise and prepare other positive avenues of dealing with the rise accordingly. Besides, according to the theory of liberal pluralism, there should be peaceful coexistence between different countries hence war should not erupt because of China’s rise to economic power. On the other hand, though the critical theory gives room for critiquing members of the society, other countries that are against China’s rise should embrace positive criticism and give China a chance of changing the world positively. John Mearsheimer’s main argument about the rise of China has various pros and cons. For instance, the argument challenges other countries to work harder and ensure global economic development is achieved. The weakness of the argument is that China’s rise could lead to eruption of war which can be devastating people all over the world.

Friends Committee on National Legislation’s article “U.S. China Policy at a Crossroads: Constructive Engagement or Hostile Containment?” (2005) brings out a major argument that China is on the rise economically and it is likely that it will become a competitive superpower in the next few years. The article argues that this may challenge the global dominance of the US. Though this might cause war between the two countries, the article suggests that engaging in war would not be the right option for the two countries. Instead, the article suggests that there should be growing interdependence between the two countries. Ever since, China has depended on world trade and global investments to push or rather advance its economic development. Moreover, it should be noted that China has depended on the US for economic development and vice versa. Therefore, the rise of China to global economic power should not been an avenue for war. The article also suggests that China’s rise to economic power should be embraced positively and instead of wars, there should be peaceful prevention of deadly conflict between the two countries. Taking into consideration the broader IR theory debates, this article suggests that the theory of realism should be put into practice whereby the US and other countries should accept China’s rise and instead enhance interdependence and friendship among the countries. The article also is in support of the theory of plural liberalism which states that no matter the different interests and opinions among the countries, peaceful coexistence should be upheld. The article also encourages positive criticism on China’s rise to global economic power. The advantage of the peaceful approach proposed by the article is that it will do away with the possible killings and destructions that were witnessed during World Wars I and II. However, the weakness of the approach is that other countries might not welcome the option of friendship and interdependence thereby causing tension among countries.

Ken Silverstein article (2008) also tries to bring up the issue of China’s rise to economic power and how it has affected the global dominance of the US. Though a number of countries are against China’s economic rise, this article articulates that the president of the US at that time, Bush, welcomed China’s rise to economic power. In fact that article points out that Bush went to attend the Beijing Games in China with the aim of showing respect to the people of China and as a way of appreciating their efforts. This is the right way of dealing with China’s rise instead of causing conflicts between the two countries. As a matter of fact, this article has upheld the three IR theories of realism, liberal pluralism and the critique theory. This is because Bush accepted China’s rise and was looking for better ways of dealing with the rise. Besides, Bush wanted to promote peaceful coexistence between the two countries and attended the Beijing Games to criticize China’s rise positively.

The most convincing article among the three is Friends Committee on National Legislation’s article, which articulates that instead of fighting against the economic rise of China, the US should enhance economic interdependence and friendship ties between the two countries. The article thus makes an attempt to do away with possible eruption of war between the countries which might be fatal and destructive in the long run.

Reference

JOHN J. M. (2010) “Australians Should Fear the Rise of China”, electronic document available at http://mearsheimer.uchicago.edu/pdfs/A0053.pdf

FRIENDS COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL LEGISLATION (2005) “U.S. China Policy at a Crossroads: Constructive Engagement or Hostile Containment?”, Friends Committee on National Legislation, electronic document available at http://fcnl.org/resources/newsletter/jul05/us_china_policy_at_a_crossroads__constructive_engagement_or_hostile_containment/

KEN S. (2008). “American Foreign Policy Brought to You by China: Advisers to Obama, McCain Tied to US Multinationals that Profit from Beijing”, Democracy Now! Available at http://www.democracynow.org/2008/8/5/american_foreign_policy_brought_to_you